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Full text of "Hallidie, A.S. (The Mechanical Miners' Guide)"



MECHANICAL 






MINERS' GUIDE 



ISSUED BY 



A. S. HALLIDIE 



Wire and Wire' Rope Works 



Office: No. 6 CALIFORNIA ST., 



SAN FRANCISCO, California, 



i-8 y o . 



THIRD EDITION- 



ALTA CAIFORNIA PRINTING HOUSE, S a 9 CALIFORNIA STREET, S. F. 



NOTE. 



The Scales, Tables and Rules contained in this pamphlet have 
been carefully compiled and condensed from the best authorities, and 
I have endeavored throughout to make use of only such as the re- 
quirements of the mechanic and miner call for. 

The compiler for many years resided and worked in the mining 
region, and often felt the want of a small pamphlet containing the 
weight and strength of different materials; rules for calculating the 
velocity and power of water, etc., etc., and the strength and weight of 
ropes and chains and such general information. 

It is offered with a full description and explanation of the 
use of Wire Rope, Wire Rope transportations, transmission of power 
by Wire Rope. Wire Rope Street Railroads, etc., to those interested, 
trusting to meet their approbation. 

A. S. HALLIDIE. 



CALIFORNIA 

STATE LIBRARY 

Call No. CALIF 

TS 
1787 
H3 
1879 



INDEX. 

Page. 

Advantages of Wire Rope . . . 9 \\ 

Alloy* an.! ( "mptwltlom 73 

Alloy*— Melting Point ol 74 

Animal* — Strength of 73 

Babbitt Metal 73 

Barbed Fence Wire 75 

BlaotiDLT 47 

Blocks and Tackle*— Power of 10 

Braided Picture Cord 87 

Bridge*— Wire Suspension 76 

Cable Railroad* 68 74 

Cable* — Wire — for Suspension Flumea 19 

Cements and Mortar* 78 

Chain— Weight and Strength 81 

Chain Pomp 75 

Clothes Line Wire* 87 

Column* — Strength of 16 17 

( 'onductor* — Lightning 16 87 

Cones for Wirf Ropes ... 84 

Cord*— Wire 16 87 

Crashing Strength of Material 18 

Derrick Fall Ropes 22 

Derrick Guy Ropes 22 

Drilling in Rock* 47 

Earths, Rock*, etc. — Measure of 60 

Economy of Wire Rope over Hemp and Manila 14 

Erection of Hallidie's Ropeway 32 46 

Expansion of Iron by Heat 13 

Fall Ropes for Derricks 22 

Fencing — Wire 74 

Ferry Ropes 19 

Galvanized Wire Rope for Ship Rigging 11 

Gas Pipes — Size of 72 

Gauges — Diameter of Different 62 

Gold — Value of an ounce of 76 

Gravities— Specific 23 24 

GripPulleys 35 53 57 

Groove of Pulleys 15 

Guy Ropes for Derricks 22 

Hallidie's Patent Ropeway — Description of 32 46 

Hallidie's Ropeway — Suggestions as to erection of 32 

Heating and Warming Rooms 76 

Hemp Rope — Weight and Strength of 81 

Hoisting— Wire Rope for 13 

Horse Power 74 

Inventor of Wire Rope 7 

Iron— Weight of Bar 59 

Lightning Conductors 16 87 

Measure of Earths, Rocks, etc 60 

Melting Point of Alloys 74 

Metals — Weights of different Sheet 58 

Metals — To Convert into Weight of different 59 

Mode of making Wire Rope 9 

Mortars and Cements 73 

NailB— Length and Weight of Cut 60 

Nails— Wire 75 84 

Overshot Waterwheel — Rule to ascertain Power of 47 

> PictureCord 87 

5 PileDriving 74 

t£ Pipes— Size of Gas 72 

2 Pipes— Velocity of Water in.... 46 47 

-* Posts and Columns — Strength of 16 

id Power of Blocks and Tackles 10 

{- Power — transmission of — by Wire Rope 49 

P Price Lists 82 88 

•• Pulleys— Form of Groove of 15 79 

< Pulleys and Drums — On the Proper size of 78 81 



z 

K 
O 



Pulleys for Rope Transmission — Table of SizeB and Speeds 52 

Pulleys-Sash— for Wire Cords 88 

Pump-Chain 75 

Pump Ropes for River Mining 23 

Railroads — street — Worked by Wire Ropes 63 73 

Resistance of Soils to running water 47 

River Pumps 75 

Ropeway-Wire 28 46 

Sash Cords 16 87 

Sash Pulleys 88 

Sheets— Weights of Metal 58 

Ships Rigging — Wire Rope for 11 

Size — Proper — of Pulltys and Drums 78 81 

Sizes of Wire Ropes— Tables of 81 

Smith, Andrew — Inventor of Wire Rope 7 

Sound— Velocity of 72 

Specific Gravities 23 

Splicing Wire Rope — Long splice 39 

Staples 75 83 

Strand — Wire — For Guys, Signals, etc 87 

Street Railroads worked by Wire Ropes 63 72 

Strength of AnimalB 72 

Strength — Crushing — of Materials 18 

Strength of Iron Wire 61 

Strength of Posts and Columns 16 

Strength — Tensile — of Materials 12 

Strength — Transverse — of Materials 20 22 

Strength of Wire Ropes 13 81 

Submarine Telegraph Cables 78 

Suspension Carriage-way — Wire Rope 18 

Suspension Bridges 76 

Telegraph Cables — Submarine 78 

Telegraph Wire 83 

Temperature of the Earth 47 

Tensile Strength of Materials 12 

Terms of Purchase 82 

Thimbles for Wire Rope 84 

Thorough-braces — Wire Rope — For Wagons 85 

TillerRopes 15 79 

Tramways — Wire 25 46 

Transverse Strength of Materials 20 

Transmission of Power by Wire Ropes 49 

Transmission Pulleys — Table of Sizes and Speeds 52 

Transportation of Material by Wire Ropes 25 46 

Uses of Wire Rope - 8 

Value of an Ounce of Gold of different fineness 76 

Velocity of Sound 72 

Velocity of Water in Pipes 46 47 

Warming and Heating rooms — notes on 76 

Water — Quantity flowing out of an opening 48 

Water required in working Quartz 75 

Water — Velocity of — In Pipes 46 

Water-wheels — Overshot — Power of 47 

Weight of Bar Iron 59 

Weight of Iron Wire 61 

Weight of Substances 23 

Weight of square foot of Metal Sheets 58 

Weight of Wire Ropes, Hemp Ropes and Chains 81 

Wire Cables for Suspension Flumes 19 

WireCords 16 87 

Wire Fencing 74 

Wire— Kindsof 16 82 

Wire Nails 75 84 

Wire Rope for Hoisting 13 

Wire Rope Suspension Carriage-way 18 

Wire Rope for suspending Hydraulic Hose 19 

Wire Rope— Table of Strengths, Weights, etc 80 81 

Wire Rope Thorough-braces for Wagons 85 

Wire Ropeways — Tramways 25 46 

Wire Strand for Guys, Signals, Fencing, Etc 87 



Iron £ Steel Wire Rope Works $ Wire Mills 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 1879. 



I am prepared to furnish the Mining, Manufacturing, Shipping and 
Fern- Interests on the Pacific Coast, with Iron and Steel Wire Rope of 
all kinds, in any length, size and quantity desired, from my manu- 
factory in San Francisco, on favorable terms. 

A. S. HALLIDIE. 



The adaption of Iron Wire to the manufacture of Ropes, is due 
to Mr. Andrew Smith, a civil engineer by profession, and a native of 
Annan, in the south of Scotland. His first experiments were made 
in 1828. As a substitute for raw hide ropes, he employed as counter- 
balance ropes for shutters and elevators; and the partial success he 
met with was encouraged by the great advance in the price of Rus- 
sian hemp. His first patent was dated January 12th, 1835 ; his sec- 
ond patent was dated March 26th, 1836. A third patent was granted 
him on December 21st, 1836, and a fourth patent was granted him 
March 20th, 1839; and at subsequent dates other patents were issued 
him for improvements in Wire Ropes and Wire Rope machinery. 
Since then Wire Rope has become an important industry, and has 
added much to the wealth of the country in helping to develop the 
iron interests. 

Wire Rope is now generally employed for Mining, Ferry, Shipping 
and general purposes; and forty years' experience has proved that it 
possesses many great advantages over Hempen Ropes— being lighter, 
stronger, more durable and cheaper than Hemp or Manila, and is 
not affected by atmospheric changes. 

The many purposes to which Wire Rope has been applied where 
Hemp Rope would soon have been destroyed, and Chain found too 
heavy, soon induced its general adoption throughout the mining re- 
gions of the civilized world; wherever shafts and incline plains are 
sunk to great depths, and the universal preference given to it over 
other ropes and chain, is a sufficient guarantee of its superiority. In 
California the consumption of rope for mining purposes is very great. 



Until the erection of my Works, in 1857, Wire Rope was not in the 
market, although the requirements of the mining and shipping inter- 
ests had long demanded it. This demand I have since been able to 
supply, and have during the past year, remodeled my works, with • 
machinery of the most approved pattern, capable of turning out all kinds 
of Flat and Round Wire Rope which I guarantee to be equal to any 
made. The Wire Rope Works being under my immediate superin- 
tendence I am enabled to manufacture an article suitable for this mar- 
ket in every respect. 

Round Wire Ropes are made from charcoal iron, bessemer steel or 
refined crucible steel, galvanized or not, and of each of these two kinds 
of Wire Rope are made, Coarse Rope having 42 wires and Flexible Rope 
having 114 wires. The latter being used for hoisting, etc., when the 
sheaves or drums are of small diameter. 

In addition to the Round Ropes, Flat Iron or Steel Wire Ropes are 
made from 2 inches to 10 inches wide, and from } to li inches thick. 

It is almost impossible to specify the precise uses to which Wire 
Rope is adapted in preference to hempen ropes or chain; but for the 
following purposes it has been a long time in use, and in every respect 
is much preferred: 

For Hoisting from Deep Shafts and Incline Planes. 

For Guy Ropes for Derricks. 

For Pump Ropes for driving River Machinery. 

For Suspension Cables for Water Conduits or Aqueducts. 

For Signal Cord. 

For Ferry Ropes 

For Ships' Standing Rigging. 

For Tiller Ropes for Steamers. 

For Guy Ropes for Smoke Stacks. 

For Sash Corti for Window Sashes, Hanging Pictures, etc. 

For Power Ropes, for conveying power to any distance. 

For Wire Tramways. 

For Endless Wire Ropeway, for the transportation of material over 
mountainous and difficult roads, etc. 

For Steam Cultivation and Land Tillage. 

For Street Railroads. 

For Ships' and Tugs' Hawsers. 

For Thoroughbraces, etc., etc. 

For Store and Hotel Elevators. 

Lightning Conductors for the protection of Dwellings, Ships 
Masts, etc. 



General Remarks on Wire Rope. 



The numerous purposes to which rope is applied, its great cost 
being a large item in a mining company's expenses, necessitates the 
use of economy in its application ; therefore, when it is satisfactorily 
proved, that by the application of Wire instead of Hemp Ropes, a 
saving can be effected, it should be a guarantee of its general adop- 
tion. 

When the machinery is properly arranged, and drums and pulleys 
properly proportioned, the durability of Wire Rope over the best 
quality of Hempen Ropes is as 3 to 1. But Wire Rope can be de- 
stroyed like other rope, if badly used ; and as we do not claim for 
Wire Rope more than it deserves, the surest test is a fair trial ; but 
we do claim for it the following advantages over other ropes, under a 
fair and legitmate trial : 

1st — It is less than two-thirds the weight of dry Hemp Rope. 

2d — It is but one-fourth the weight of a wet Hemp Rope. 

3d — It is less than one-half the size for same strength. 

4th — It does not stretch and shrink (being unaffected by the atmos- 
phere), nor does it absorb moisture. 

5th — It is three to five times as durable. 

6th — The excessive heat of the Summer sun does not rot it, nor 
does the moisture of Winter cause it to swell. 

7th — It can be spliced as easily, wet or dry — frozen or otherwise 
— and more snugly and neatly than Hemp Rope. 

8th — And lastly — We do not have to send to Manila or Russia, or 
any other foreign country, for the raw material, but obtain it from 
the iron-fields of our own country, thus being essentially a home- 
manufactured article. 

Wire Rope is usually made of six strands, the core or heart around 
which it is formed being either hemp or wire; the former being pre- 
ferred for hoisting ropes, or where the rope works around a sheave 
or draw. The strands are formed of six wires around a centre wire, 
thus giving in all 42 wires to the rope. This is the best form for a 






10 



rope which has to work over sheaves and drums of large diameters, 
or in cases where the ropes are used as guys or stays. When sheaves 
and drums of comparative small diameter are employed, then the 
strands are composed of much smaller wires, and usually nineteen 
wires form each strand, giving 114 wires to the rope, and making a 
very soft and flexible rope. The rigidity or flexibility of a rope is 
also modified as the wire is either soft or hard. For a rope of great 
tensile strength, hard drawn wire is required, but if it is necessary 
to have a rope of extreme softness and flexibility, annealed wire can 
be used ; but it must be born in mind that wire loses 40 per cent, of 
its tensile strength by annealing. Refined Crucible Steel Wire largely 
combines both qualities of great tensile strength, flexibility and 
toughness. 



Explanation cf the Signs used in this Work 

Addition or plus, . + Division, . . -=- Cube Root, . -$/ 
Subtraction or minus — Equal to, . . = Square, . . . 2 
Multiplication, . x Square Root, . s/ Cube, .... 3 



On the Power of Blocks and Tackles. 

RULE FOR ASCERTAINING THE POWER TO BE EXERTED IN RAISING WEIGHTS 
BY PULLEYS. 

When only one Rope or Cord is used. 

Rule — Divide the weight to be raised by the number of the parts of 
the rope engaged in supporting the lower or movable block. 

Ex. 1. What power is required to raise 1200 lbs. when the lower 
block contains six sheaves, and the end of the rope is fastened to the 
upper block ? 

1200 lbs. -H 12 = 100 lbs., the power to be exerted. 

Ex. 2. Suppose the end of the rope is fastened to the lower 
blocks, what power is required ? 

1200-^13=92,*., lbs., the power to be exerted. 

TO ASCERTAIN WHAT WEIGHT CAN BE RAISED BY CERTAIN POWER EXERTED. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of the parts of the rope by the power 
exerted. 



11 



mplt. Suppose six par I and fifty pounds 

power exerted — the weight tint can be raised will be 300 11*. 

on differential oi tin Pulley constats of a 

doubV e block, the upper ' chain 

nl diameters, fixed to each other — the lower block 

: single chain sheave. The power trained being in proportion 
to the difference in the diameters of the two upper sheaves — the 
smaller the difference the greater the power, and The 

chain fall is endless and docs not mn back by the load being hoisted. 

derricks and cranes have recently been lilted up with wire rci|ie 
tackle, two, three or four fold, iron blocks with sheaves 12 or 14 
inches diameter, with a steel rope 1J inch circumference for a fall, 
works very much smoother than chain, and does not rot out like a 
Manila fall rope. 



Galvanized Iron Wire Rope for Ships' Standing Rigging 

Possesses many advantages over Hemp, requiring no stripping or 
refitting, as Hemp Rope must have every few years : and being once 
set up. it obviates the attention and trouble caused by the stretching 
and shrinking of Hemp, and by its extreme lightness, being but two- 
thirds the weight of Hemp, increases the ship's capacity for cargo. 
And the advantage derived from the smaller surface opposed to the 
wind, (Wire Rope being one-half the size of Hemp) especially in 
beating to windward, needs no comment — while for the jib and flying 
jib stays, its sma'lness and smoothness permit the hanks to travel on 
it much more freely. 



The following are some of the Advantages of Wire Rope: 

1. Wire Rope is not affected by the atmospheric changes, conse- 
quently does not stretch or shrink in dry or wet weather, avoiding the 
necessity of repeated setting up as in Hemp. 

2. Wire Rope is 40 per cent, less weight than Hemp, saving so 
much top hamper. 

3. Wire Rope is very much smaller for equal strength, and having 
but four-tenths the surface of Hemp Rope exposed to the wind, en- 
ables the ship to run closer to the wind. 

4. Wire Rope is spliced equally well in all kinds of weather, and 
much more neatly than Hemp. 



12 



5. The jib runs down Wire Rope freer, seldom requiring the 
down haul. 

6. Wire Rope presents a neat and trim appearance, looks ship- 
shape ; and one suit of wire-rigging in the absence of accident, will 
last the ship's life. 

7. Lastly, and to ship owners very important ! Wire Rope 
COSTS VERY MUCH LESS than Hemp or Chain. 

Extract from the Report or the Secretary of the Navy, 1867. 

"During the year twenty-three vessels have been wholly, and sev- 
eral others partially wire rigged. Tests of the comparative strength of 
Wire and Hemp Rope, and reports of commanders of wire rigged 
vessels have been so satisfactory, that the Bureau recommend the 
erection of a building, and the purchase of necessary machinery for 
the manufacture of wire rigging," (at Charlestown Navy Yard.) 

Extract from San Francisco Times, August, 1867, in Reference to 
the Burning of the ship " Blackmail," in this Harbor. 

"The forehold, where the fire originated, was burned nearly down 
to the shell — the forecastle was completely destroyed, the foremast so 
badly burned that it will have to be taken out, and the houses on deck 
were also rendered useless. Ilivas a fortunate thing that the ship's rig- 
ging was all wire; had she been rigged with hemp, the shrouds would, of 
course, have caught fire, and the masts and yards would in all prob- 
ability have been burned, and the difficulty of saving her would have 
been doubled." 

Wire Rope possesses so many advantages for the standing rigging 
of ships that it is rapidly displacing every other kind of rigging. 



Tensile Strength of Materials. 

Weight or force necessary to tear asunder 1 in. square in lbs. 



Metals. 



Copper lbs. 32,500 

Copper Wire " 61,200 

Gold, cast " 20,000 

Iron cast, lbs., 18,000 to 30,000 

" medium bar. ..lbs. 50,000 

Iron Wire " 100,000 



" " annealed . . 





...lbs. 1,800 


' ' milled. . . . 


3,320 


Platinum Wire. . 


. . . " 53,000 


Silver, cast 


. . . " 40,000 




. . . " 120,000 




. . . " 150,000 



60,000 RefdCr'cibl Steel Wire 175,000 



13 



• it. 

Ash lbs. 16,000 Mahoganv lbs. 21,000 

Beech 11,600 Oak, Amer. white.... " 11,500 

Cedar " 11,400 Oak, seasoned •' 13,600 

Elm " 13.(00 Pine, "pitch," " 12,000 

Fir, strongest " 12,000 Teak, Java " 14,000 

Lignum Viae.... " 11,800 Walnut " 7,800 

Miscellaneous A r tides. 

Brick lbs. 200 Slate lbs. 12.000 

Ivory " 16,000 Whalebone *' 7,600 

Note — The practical value of the above is about one-fourth. 

TO FIND THE STRENGTH OF DIRECT COHESION, EXPANSION BY HEAT. 

Rile. — Multiply area of transverse section in inches by weight 
given in the preceding table — the product is the strength in lbs. 

Example. — What is the strength of a bar of medium iron 2 inches 
square ? 

Transverse section of 2 inches=4 inches, multiplied by 50,000, 
equals 200,000 lbs., the answer required. 

The absolute strength of materials pulled lengthwise, is in propor- 
tion to the square of their diameters. 

100° of heat will expand a bar of cast iron .0006173 or the 1620th 
of its length. 

100° of heat will expand a bar of wrought iron .0006614 or the 
1512th part of its length. 

The tensile strength of metals varies with their temperature, generally 
decreasing with increase of temperature. 

The tensile strength of Iron and Steel Wire Ropes, is about 40,000 
lbs. per inch area of Iron Rope and 80,000 lbs. per inch area of 
crucible steel Rope; or, 1 lb of Iron Wire Rope, 1 foot long, breaks at 
from 10 to 12 tons, and 1 lb. of Steel Wire Rope, 1 foot long, breaks 
at from 18 to 20 tons. One-sixth to one-seventh of the breaking 
strength of Iron and Steel Wire Rope, is considered a safe working 
load. 



Iron and Steel Wire Rope for Hoisting. 

For Deep Shafts, Incline Planes, or Slopes, Wire Rope is particu- 
larly well adapted; being so much lighter than other ropes or chain, 
requires proportionately less power to hoist it, and occupies less than 



14 



half the space on the drum. Its durability is from three to five 
times that of Hemp or Manila, and its weight is not increased or its 
fibres destroyed by working in wet situations. 

As a practical illustration of the advantages of Iron Wire Rope 
over Hempen Rope, we submit the following : 

Shaft 500 feet, Load including cage 3,000 lbs. 

500 feet, 2 inch diameter, dry Hemp Rope weighs 650 lbs. 

500 feet, J inch diameter, Iron Wire Rope ' 420 lbs. 

Difference in favor of Wire Rope 230 lbs. 

Allowing 1 minute hoisting time, then -Xj = 57,500 ft. lbs. = 
1£ horse power saved by using Iron Wire Rope. 

The difference in favor of Crucible Steel Wire Rope is still greater, 
and may be summed up as follows : 

1st. Crucible Steel Wire Rope is three times as durable as the 
best Manila or Hemp Rope. 

2d. Crucible Steel Wire Rope weighs only four-tenths the weight 
of Manila of equal strength, when dry, and one-fourth when Manila 
or Hemp is wet. 

3d. — Crucible Steel Wire Rope is only one-third the thickness of 
Manila of equal strength. 

4th. Crucible Steel Wire Rope possesses more springiness or elas- 
ticity than any other kind of Rope. 

5th. The first cost of Round Steel Wire Rope is 75 per cent, the 
first cost of Manila Rope. 

From the above we invite Superintendents and Engineers of Min- 
ing Companies using rope, especially in deep shafts, to the following 
analysis of comparative cost, etc. 

1st. Round Steel Wire Rope has been employed in California 
for over twelve years, in vicinities of Grass Valley, Downieville and 
Columbia, and the durability usually exceeds four times that of Manila. 

2d. Take, for instance, a Manila Rope2i inches thick, 1,000 feet 
of this size Rope will weigh about 2,200 lbs., when dry. Round Steel 
Wire Rope, same strength and length, will weigh 900 lbs., wet or dry. 
Difference in favor of Steel Rope, 1,300 lbs. For a 1,000-foot hoist, 
allowing two minutes, — X — = 325,000 ft. lbs; = 10-horse-power; 
using say i cord of wood at $6 per cord = $3 per day or §1,080 per 
annum, (360 days) expended in hoisting up a dead weight of Manila 
Rope aver that of Steel Rope. Add to this the strain, wear and tear of 



I . 



the machinery, .ml you will ascertain approximately what the present 
outlay is for hoisting ropes. 

8d. The thickness of Round Steel Wire Rope being one-third 
that of Manila of equal strength, it takes proportionately less room on 
the winding drum : thus 1,000 feel Steel Rope, J in. in diameter, will 
wind on a dnim five feet diameter and four feet long, with a single 
layer, while it will require thru layers of Manila. 

4th. Steel Wire Rope, although possessing more springiness in 
itself, does not stretch out like Manila, but takes back the spring it has 
given out. This elasticity relieves the dead strain on the rope, espe- 
cially in case of sudden start of the hoisting engine. 

SUMMARY: 

Life of Manila Rope, say 4 months, equal 3 ropes for 1 year 

each rope costs, say $400 $1,200 

Extra cost of fuel for hoisting dead weight, J year 1 0*0 

Cost of 1 year running of Manila Rope $ 2. '280 

1 Round Steel Wire Rope equal to above 1 year 400 

Annual saving effected by using Steel Wire Rope $ 1,880 

We submit the above facts for your consideration and verification, 
modifying it to suit localities. 

In applying Round Wire Rope the groove of the pulley over which 
the rope runs should be of the same form and size as the rope em- 
ployed, and all drums and pulley sheaves should be 100 times the size 
of the rope for coarse ropes, or 60 times for flexible wire ropes. 

NoU — Within the past 10 years, Steel made by the Bessemer and 
Sieman-Martin processes has become quite popular, but it does not 
possess the value of refined crucible steel, and must not be confounded 
•with it. 



Tiller Ropes. 

As a Tiller Rope for river steamers, it is superior to chain, being 
lighter, cheaper, and more easily managed, the objection caused by 
the links of the slack chain catching in the rollers — thus endangering 
the safety of the boat — is entirely removed. 

Morever, in case of a fire on board, it is free from danger, while 
a Hemp or Raw Hide Rope, running as it does from one end of the 
boat to the other, is the first thing to become destroyed. With a Wire 
Rope, the pilot can stick to the helm as long as the fire will permit 
him. 



16 



Wire Cord, 

For Hanging Sashes, Pictures, Dumb Waiters, Clock Weights, and 
for Signal Cord. 
This Cord is made from iron, steel, copper, galvanized or composi- 
tion wire, is very light, durable and pliable, and is not subject to rot. 
It has been in use for many years for the purpose of hanging window 
sashes, being much preferred to any other cord. No house should be 
without it. It is the only safe cord to use for hanging pictures or 
mirrors, as moths cannot attack it. (See List of Prices, on last page.) 



Lightning Conductors. . 

Copper Wire Rope Lightning Conductors are much in use among 
the shipping, as a protection against the effects of lightning on a ship's 
mast. They are superior to any other conductor as a protection 
against lightning for church spires, tall chimneys, etc., are much more 
easily fixed, and do not get out of order. (See List of Prices, on last 
page.) 



WIRE. 



Telegraph Wire, 
Fence Wire, 
Bridge Wire, 

Bessemer Spring Wire, 
Brass Wire, 
Charcoal Wire, 
Stone Wire, 
Bright Wire, 
Tinned Wire, 
Broom Wire 



Telephone Wire, 
Baling Wire, 
Steel Wire, 
Copper Wire, 
Lacquered Wire, 
Flat Wire, 

Annealed Wire, 
Reaper Wire, 
Grape Wire, 
, Training Wire 



Special Wire, of various forms, made to order. All sizes from 000 
to 40 constantly on hand and supplied to dealers on favorable terms. 



Strength of Posts and Columns. 

SAFE WEIGHT IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH FOR CAST IRON. 
Length in diameters. Hollow Cylinder. Solid Cylinder. Square -f- and T Sections 

10 25759 18000 19800 

20 12825 6800 8550 

30 7200 3840 4800 

40 4833 2610 3262 

Thus a Solid Cylinder, 20 feet long, 1 foot diameter, will support 
safely 6800 lb. per square inch. 



17 



For Timber. 
Length in diameters 10 20 30 40 50 60 

Pounds per inch of section 900 600 836 229 143 100 
A timber post 30 feet long, 1 foot diameter, will safely sustain 336 
lbs. per square inch. 

— Wkiffte't Bridge Building. 

For obtaining the strength of Columns, Prof. Rankine gives the 
following formula: 

p _ f s When P= breaking strength in lbs. s sectional area, 

I , 1* 1 length, h least external diameter, all in inches, f and a 
h' constants having the following values for different 
materials. ^ 

f a 

Wrought Iron 36000 .00033 

Cast Iron 80000 .0025 

Timber 7200 .004 

Examples. 
Required ultimate strength of hollow cylindrical cast iron column, 
20 feet long, 10 inch external diameter, 1 inch thick. 

p _ (f) 80.000 x(s) 28.28 _« MryqlB lbs . 

1 + .0025 - ( ' 2) - 40 ' 
V 10 J 

Required ultimate strength of rectangular timber post, 24 feet long, 
10 inch x 10 inch. 

P= (f) 7200 x (s) 100 =166753 )bs 

1 + .004 C 1 ') a8 »' 
(h 1 ) 10° 

Required ultimate strength of solid wrought iron column, 18 feet 
long, 6 inches diameter. 

p= 36,000 x 28.27 

1 + .00033 Zi0 
6' 

The foregoing formula apply to columns with ends perfectly true, 
and carefully bedded and fixed. If ends are rough from the foundry, 
multiply value of 'a' by 4. 

— Vase's Manual/or Railroad Engineers. 



18 



Crushing Strength of various materials, 
Metals. 



IN LBS. PER 1 IN. SQUARE. 



Cast Iron, American . . . 129,000 

Cast Iron, English 122,400 

Wrought Iron, American 83,500 
Wrought Iron, English... 57,100 



Copper cast 117,000 

Steel cast 295,000 

Tin cast 15,500 

Lead cast - 7,730 



Ash 6,663 

Birch 7,960 

Box 10,513 

Hickory, while - . . 8,925 



Oak, white. 6,100 

Stones, etc. 



Woods. 

Pine, pitch 8,947 

Pine, white 5,775 

Spruce, white. 5,350 

Teak 12,100 

Walnut 6,645 



Brick, hard 2,000 to 4,000 

Brick, common . . 800 to 4,000 
Freestone, Conn . . 3,319 

Granite, Quincy . . 15,300 



Marble 9,000 to 23,000 

Mortar 120 to 240 

Portland Cement 1, sand 1 1,280 
Sandstone 2,800 to 10,000 



Wire Rope as a Suspended Carriage Way 

FOR DELIVERING ROCK, LUMBER, ETC., OVER OTHERWISE INACCESSIBLE 

POINTS. 

There are many points in the mountains where it is impracticable 
to build a roadway, railway track, or chute. In such a place, a prac- 
tical and economical method for delivering material is to extend a 
Wire Rope from the upper to the lower points when it is not too long 
for a single span, stretching it sufficiently tight to clear all points and 
obstructions, and on this Wire Rope to run a pulley, below which 
hangs a basket or box containing the rock — or if it is lumber, a pulley 
at each end of the lumber is necessary. In many cases in sending 
down rock, etc., it is found better to use three pulleys, two above and 
one below the rope, one of the upper pulleys being in advance and 
the other behind the lower one. By this means the pulleys are kept 
in the same direction as the rope. 

The pulley should be of a large diameter, the groove to be of the 
same size as the rope. 

The Endless Wire Ropeway system is adapted for delivering mate- 
rial across and over mountainous and difficult roads. (See page 25.) 



1!> 



Wire Cables for Suspension Flumes or Water Conduits, 
For conveying water across deep galleys, unvom, rivers, etc., with 
galvanized iron piping, joints, suspension ro! . complete., 

— the most econnmic.il way of carrying water over a deep canyoD, 
etc. Guaranteed to keep in perfect order. Estimates given and ma- 
terials furnished low. 



Wire Rope for Suspending Hydraulic Hose or Pipe clear 
of a Cave. 

The high banks down which a hydraulic hose descends are very apt 
to cave and destroy the hose. In order to insure its safety, a Wire 
Rope is stretehed from the top of the bank to the bottom of the 
ciaim, at a sufficient angle to escape the bank in case of a cave. To 
this Wire Rope the hose is attached, and in such a position as to be 
perfectly secure from any danger of destruction by the caving of 
the bank. 

The loss of one hydraulic hose would buy many Wire Ropes. 



Iron and Steel Ferry Rope 

Stretched across the river, being lighter, is more easily set up, and 
being perfectly round and smaller it allows the pulley blocks to run 
much freer and more rapidly over the rope, and removes the sud- 
den strain caused by checking (as with a Hemp Rope), when the boat 
is in the centre of the stream, and does not require the contsant at- 
tention of the ferryman to set up or slack off the rope, according to 
the state of the weather ; and as the sun does not rot it, it can be 
kept stretched during the Summer. Iron sheaves should not be used 
on Wire Ferry Rope, unless the groove of sheave properly fits the rope. 

For a Swinging Ferry, where the rope lays in the water, it does 
not rot — nor does it, like Hemp,_absorb the water until it becomes 
water-logged and clumsy. Hemp Rope, thus saturated, will have 
four limes the weight of Wire Rope placed in the same position ; 
thus in slack water, with Wire Rope, there is no useless expenditure 
of the force of the current in carrying the rope across ; and conse- 
quently, smaller and lighter buoys are required. 

N. B. — We have had Wire Ropes working as above for seven 
years. 

Ferry Blocks furnished complete. 



20 



The Transverse Strength of Materials. 

The transverse strength of any beam or bar of wood or metal is as 
the square of the depth multiplied by the breadth and divided by the 
length between the supports. 

The transverse strength of any square beam of equal length, is as the 
cube of their depth — and that of cylindrical beams as the cube of their 
diameter. 

The strength of a projecting beam is only one-fourth of what it 
would be if supported at both ends, and the weight applied in the 
middle. 

The strength of a projecting beam is only one-sixth of what it would 
be \{ fixed at both ends, and the weight applied to the middle. 

The strength of a beam to support a weight in the centre of it when 
the ends rest merely upon two supports, compared to one the ends 
being fixed, is as 2 to 3. 

Ultimate strength of different materials, one inch square and one foot long, 
weight- suspended from one end. 







Breaking 
weight. 


Value for 
general use 


Cast Iron 




681 


225 


Wrought Iron, American . . 




650 


180 






500 


140 






665 


182 


Steel (extreme) 




1918 


400 


Steel Fuddled 


Woods. 


800 


190 


Ash : 




168 


55 






130 


32 


Elm 




125 


30 






250 


55 






230 


50 






245 


55 






146 


36 






136 


45 






160 


50 






206 


60 




Stones. 








13 


4 






24 


8 






26 


8i 



21 



Transverse strength of Cast Iron Bars of various figures, sections of each: 
1 inch area, length 1 foot, fixed at one end, weight suspended at other. 

Form of Section. Bre.king Weight. I Form of Section. Breaking Weight. 

■ Square 673 lbs ▲. K, l llil;Ucral Triangle 

EH .«. ^^ edge up 5601bs. 

Square diagonal 

vertical 568 " ^^Equilateral Triangle 

▼ edge down 950 lbs. 



o 

I 



Solid Cylinder . . 573 

Hollow cylinder 
outer diameter 
twice the inner. 704 

Rectangle 2xi 1456 
3xJ 2392 
4xi 2052 



T 

JL 



2 in. deep x 2 in. 
wide x .268 inch 
thickness 2068 " 

2 in. deep x 2 in. 
wide x .268 inch 
ihickness 555 ' ' 



— Haswsll. 

RILE TO FIND THE TRAXVERSF. STRKNOTH WHEN A RECTANGULAR BAR OR 
BEAM IS FIXED ON ONE END AND LOADED AT THE OTHER : 

Multiply the value in the preceding table by the breadth and square 
■of the depth in inches, and divide the product by the length in feet. 
The quotient is the weight in lbs. 

N. B. — When the beam is uniformly loaded throughout its length, 
•double the result. 

Example. — What weight will a 2 in. square wrought iron bar bear, 
projecting 2 ft. 6 in. in length ? 

Value for wrought- iron 180x2x2'=1440-=-2£=576 lbs. 

WHEN THE BEAM IS FIXED AT BOTH ENDS AND LOADED IN THE MIDDLE. 

Rui e. Multiply the value in the preceding table by six times the 
breadth, and the square of the depth in inches, and divide by length 
in feet. The result must be doubled when its weight is evenly dis- 
tributed along its length. 

Example. — What weight will a bar of cast iron 2 in. square and 
•5 feet in length support in the middle, when fixed at the ends ? 

Value for cast iron 225x2x6x2 2 -i-5=2,160 lbs. 

WHEN THE BAR OR BEAM IS SUPPORTED AT BOTH ENDS AND LOADED IN 
THE MIDDLE. 

Rule. Multiply the value in the preceding table by the square of 
ithe depth, and four times the breadth in inches, and divide the result 
by the length in feet. 

Note. — When the weight is uniformly distributed, double the result. 



22 



Example 1. What is the weight a cast iron bar 5 feet between the 
supports and 2 inches square will support ? 

Value for cast iron 225x2 J x 2x4=7,200-5-5=1,440 lbs. 

Example. How much will an ash beam support, being 10 feet 
between supports, 8 inches deep by four inches wide. 
Value for ash, 55x8 1 x4x4=56,320-r- 10=5,632 lbs. 

TO FIND THE DIMENSIONS OF A BAR OR BEAM TO SUPPORT A GIVEN WEIGHT 
IN THE MIDDLE, BETWEEN FIXED ENDS. 

Multiply the length between the fixed ends in feet by the weight, 
and divide the product by 6 times the value of the material; the result 
will give the product of the breadth and square of the depth. 

Example. What are the necessary dimensions of a beam of Amer- 
ican pine, 20 feet long, to support a load of 15,360 lbs. 

Assumed 
lbs. ft. breadth. 

15,360x20-r-6x50=1024-f- 4 =256. 
^256= 16 size should be 4x 16 
Note. — In above example the result is 1,024, which divided by the 
assumed breadth, 4 in., will leave 256, being the square of the depth 
16, or by dividing the result 1,024, by the square of the depth (16 ! )= 
256, gives the breadth 4 in. 

Steel Wire Rope for Derrick Fall Ropes 

Works to great advantage, especially if the hoisting is done by water 
or steam i power. The sheaves are made of cast iron 10 to 14 inches 
diameter, the groove of which conforms to the size of the rope — for 
ordinary work, a Steel Rope i inch thick is sufficient for the purpose. 
A Fall of this kind properly put on, will outlast five or six Manila 
Falls, and occupy one-sixth the space on the drum. 



Wire Rope for "Derrick Guys." 

The universal adoption of the derrick for working deep claims in 
the river bars, etc., in preference to any other method, being much 
cheaper, and more expeditious, has drawn attention to its erection, 
and to the necessity of keeping the derrick mast in its proper position. 
With Manila Guy Ropes this is impossible. The constant stretching 
and shrinking of Hempen Ropes require the almost constant slack- 
ing and tightening of them, according to the state of the atmosphere; 
and when the mast leans out of its position, it is almost impossible to 
swing the boom to its proper point. 



i:. 



Wire Rope being unaffected by the weather, this trouble and ex- 
pense is saved; being 40 per cent, lighter, it is much more easily and 
more tightly set up ; and as the sun does not rot and destroy its fibres 
by its being exposed to the summer heat , it will last an incredibly 
long time. 



Wire Rope for River Mining. 

For Pump Ropes, especially if of a great length, the advantage of 
using Wire Rope is obvious. A Grip Pulley, (see pages 37 and 38) is fixed 
to the shaft of the water wheel and pump, a Wire Rope is used to 
transmit the power. (See page 49.) The fact that when spliced and 
put on the grip pulleys, the Wire Rope does not stretch and allow the 
pump to stop working, is a mafter of very great moment to the river 
miner, saving him an immense amount of trouble and care ; and 
those who have once experienced the loss of time and money by the 
filling up with water of a large and deep pit, can more fully appreciate 
this. 

Specific Gravities — Weight of Substances. 

Water is well adapted for the siandard of gravity. A cubic foot of 
rain water weighs 1,000 ounces, avoirdupois, and its weight is taken 
as the unit. 

When a body is immersed in water, it loses such a portion of its 
own weight as is equal to that of the fluid it displaces. 

Following is a list of specific gravities of various substances: 



Metals. 

Brass Plate 8380 

Brass Wire 8214 

Copper Plates 8698 

Copper Wire 8880 

Gold, pure cast 19258 

Gold, 22 karat fine 17486 

Iron, Cast 7207 

Iron, Wrought Bar 7788 

Iron Wire 7774 

Lead, Cast 11352 



Metals— Continued. 

Mercury, 60° 13580 

Nickel 8008 

Platinum, native 16000 

Platinum, hammered . . . .20337 

Silver, pure cast 10474 

Silver, pure, hammered. . .10511 

Steel Plates 7806 

Steel Wire 7847 

Tin, pure 7291 

Zinc, cast 6861 

Zinc, rolled 7191 



24 



Dry Woods. 

Ash 722 

Birch 567 

Cedar 561 

Cherry 715 

Ebony, American 1331 

Elder 095 

Elm 600 

Fir 512 

Hickory, pig nut 792 

Hickory, shell bark 690 

Lignum Vita? 1333 

Locust 728 

Mahogany, Honduras 560 

Mahogany, Spanish 852 

Maple... 750 

Maple, Birdseye 576 

Oak, Canadian 872 

Oak, English 932 

Oak, Heart, 60 years 1 170 

Oak, Live 1068 

Oak, White 860 

Pine, Pitch 660 

Pine, White 554 

Spruce 500 

Sycamore 623 

Teak 700 

Walnut 671 

Walnut, Black 500 

Willow 530 

Divide the specific gravity of any of the above substances by 16, 
and the result will be the weight of 1 cubic foot in pounds. 



Stones, Earth, Etc 

Asphaltum 905 

Borax 

Brick ..1367 

Brick, Fire 

" Work, in cem't 

"in mort'r.1600 
Cement, Portland. . . 

Clay 

Clay, with Gravel.. . 
Coal, Newcastle. . . 

Coal Scotch 1259 

Coal, Anthracite 1436 

Earth, common soil. 

Granite, Quincy 

Limestone 

Marble, Italian, wht. 

Quartz 

Salt, Common 

Slate 2672 

Sulphur, Native .... 
Trap 

Liquids. 

Oil, Linseed 

Oil, Olive 

Oil, Petroleum. . . . 
Water, rain 



to 1650 
1714 

to 1900 
2201 
1800 

to 2000 

1300 

'1930 

2480 

1270 

to 1300 

to 1640 
2194 
2652 
3180 
2708 
2660 
1670 

to 2900 
2033 
2720 



940 

915 

878 

1000 



Transportation of Ore and Other Material 

BY MEANS OF ENDLESS TRAVELING WIRE ROPES. 



HALLIDIE'S PATENT ROPEWAY. 



The system of transporting material by means of an endless travel- 
ing wire rope has been well and thoroughly tested during the past six 
years under a variety of circumstances, which have proved its economy, 
.simplicity, and advantages. 

The " Endless Ropeway," introduced in the year 1871, and pro- 
tected by numerous U. S. patents granted to me, has been in opera- 
tion for six years, and proved itself in every way the most reliable, 
economical, and simple mode of conveying ores, rock, earth, lumber, 
produce, and material of all description, that can be conveyed in 
reasonable size packages over difficult roads, or over roads inaccessible 
to the most economical and rapid mode of steam locomotion. 

During the past six years, many very valuable improvements have 
been made in the details of construction, reducing the cost of the 
same and simplifying its operations. 

The principles of its operations will bear the strictest criticism, and 
an examination of the same by skilled and scientific mechanics, will 
demonstrate the great advantages over the many methods now in opera- 
tion for similar purposes. 

Its mode of operating may be briefly summed up as follows: — 

An endless wire rope is supported at intervals of from 150 to 200 
feet, on grooved wheels or sheaves, which are secured to the ends of 
cross-arms, elevated on suitable posts or towers, about 16 feet above 
surface obstruction of the ground; the bights of the endless rope are 
placed around end sheaves or grip pulleys, placed horizontally, one at 
each extremity of the line. The endless rope thus passed around 



26 



horizontal end sheaves or grip pulleys, and is supported between these 
end sheaves at proper intervals, on bearing sheaves of such propor- 
tions that the friction is reduced to a minimum. 

The office of the end, or "grip" pulley, is to transmit power to or 
from the endless rope, so that the rope cannot slip in the groove of 
the pulley, and the speed of the rope can be regulated by it. 

The conveyers or carriers used for moving the materia], the form 
of which is regulated by the character of the material to be moved, are 
attached to the rope by means of steel clips of peculiar form, at dis- 
tances regulated by the amount of the material to be moved, 

It will be seen that when the rope is set in motion, either by gravi- 
tation or by other motive power, it will carry with it the carriers or 
conveyers at such rate of speed as may be determined to be most 
suitable. 

These are so arranged that they pass over the bearing sheaves and 
around the end or grip pulleys. At any point in the line of the Rope- 
ways the carrier can be loaded or discharged. The rope runs at an 
uniform rate of speed, about 200 feet per minute; and the carriers are 
loaded as they pass, and at the point of discharge are unloaded auto- 
matically. 

When the point of discharge is lower than the point of loading, the 
Ropeway will run by gravitation, if the angle of descent exceeds 8 
degrees, or 1 in seven. When it is less than eight degrees, power has 
to be employed, and this can be attached anywhere on the line — 
either steam, water or other motor. Where the line runs by gravita- 
tion, brakes are attached to the end grip pulleys, and the speed thus 
regulated, and at the same time the line is under the control of the 
man in charge. 

For conveying ore from the mine to the mill, the carriers are 
wrought iron rectangular buckets, holding 100 lbs. ore, and are self- 
dumping. 

If the rope travels at 200 ft. per minute and the ore buckets are 100 
ft. apart and hold 100 lbs. each, there will be delivered 200 lbs. of ore 
every minute, or 6 tons per hour, or 60 tons per day of 10 hours — 
this is about as much as two men can conveniently shovel into a cart, 
and for an ordinary line run by the gravitation of its descending load, 
this is all the attendance necessary. One of the men should go over the 
line once a day and see that the journals are properly oiled. 

For a line one mile long, running by gravitation and delivering 60 
tons per day, the cost of delivering ore is under 15 cents per ton, as 
follows : 



n 



Two men at |60 per month $10" 00 

1 i per cent. wear and tear 76 00 

10-12 per cent, interest on cost 50 00 

Oil. etc 5 00 

Cost per month $230 00 

Sixty tons per day for 26 days per month=l4Jc. per ton. 

By placing the buckets 50 feet apart, the amount of ore carried will 
be doubled, or 120 tons per day of 10 hours — or by running 20' 
hours per day the same result will be obtained — in both cases the 
men required for loading will be doubled, but the cost of carrying 
the ore will be reduced to about 10c. per ton per mile. 

When the angle of descent is very great, the descending load fur- 
nishes sufficient power to carry back and up to the mine such mate- 
rial as may be needed — and in several lines I have constructed, this 
saving, when taken into account, has been so great that it has not 
only brought the cost of transporting the ore to nothing, but has been 
actually a source of revenue. 

Again, in cases where a limited power is needed at the mine for 
pumping, etc., the power can be supplied from the mill by means of 
the grip pulleys and the endless wire rope. 

In brief, the foregoing system is applicable for the following pur- 
poses: 

For conveying ores from the mine to the mill. 

For conveying light loads of any material from place to place. 

For transporting produce and lumber across difficult points, and to 
shipping in an offing. 

For conveying passengers across gorges, chasms and over hazardous 
roads. 

For supplying water to reservoirs across chasms, etc. 

The advantages claimed are: 

No grading or road-building is required. 

It can work under all circumstances of weather, with great depths 
of snow on the ground, during heavy storms and freshets. 

It can run constantly without rest ; as well during a dark night as 
a clear day. 

It can cross deep gorges and chasms. 

It can pass around precipitous bluffs and perpendicular cliffs, or' 
over the most rugged mountains. 

The rope can never leave the posts or sheaves. 



28 



It can furnish and transmit power, when trfere is sufficient descent, 
by its own gravitation, or by an engine attached to either end. 

It can be constructed and worked cheaper than any other system or 
road can be constructed and worked under like circumstances. 

By using the Duplex Carrier, it can convey any material, such as 
lumber, goods, ores and passengers, from place to place. 

The letters and extracts herewith appended speak for themselves : 

Eureka, Nevada, July ioth, 1872. 

T. M. Martin — My Dear Sir: On your leaving for San Francisco, it gives 
me great pleasure to hand you my written acceptance of the Hallidie Tram- 
way, put up by you on our mine in Freiberg. 

It is a perfect success, discharging ten tons of ore per hour, with two men's 
labor. It is perfectly simple in construction, and as far as I can judge, there is 
nothing about it to ever get out of order — nothing to wear out. While ours re- 
quires but about 2,500 feet of Wire Rope, I could see no reason why the line 
could not be extended almost indefinitely with equally happy results. Again, 
the carrying capacity might be doubled or quadrupled if desired. After sev- 
eral weeks trial upon our mine, the unanimous verdict of all who have seen it, 
is a complete, unquestioned success. If this can be of any service to you, use it 
in any way you think proper. 

Very respectfully, 

C. C. GOODWIN. , 



Emma Hill Consolidated Mining Co., 

Little Cottonwood, Utah. 
Superintendent's Office, Sept. 28, 1872. 
T. M. Martin, Esq. — Sir: The Ropeway constructed by you (Hallidie's 
Patent) for the Emma Hill Consolidated Mining Company, has been built in a 
most substantial and workmanlike manner, and is at this time in splendid work- 
ing condition. I most cheerfully accept the work for the company, and recom- 
mend it to others wishing a sure and speedy transit for ores over places im- 
practicable for wagon roads, etc. 

Respectfully, 

'L. U. COLBATH, 

Superintendent. 



[From the Utah Mining Journal, Salt Lake, Sept. 23d, 1872.] 

THE VALLEJO ROPEWAY. 

The Vallejo Tunnel Company's Tramway in Little Cottonwood, built on the 
Hallidie Patented Plan, is a complete success. It is between 2,300 and 
2,400 feet in length, and is supported by thirteen stations. The fall in this 
distance is about 600 feet, and the Wire Rope, which is five-eighths of an inch 
in diameter, will safely and easily deliver 100 tons in six hours. The machinery 



29 



is automatic, loading and unloading the sacks or buckets. The stations are 
about 200 feet apart, and the entire apparatus is strong and safe. As the Wire 
Rope is elevated about 40 feet above the surface of the hill, the Tramway can 
be worked all winter lung, without the slightest trouble. 



Office of the Chicago Silver Mining Co., \ 
Salt LaKS City, Dec. 1, 1874. f 
A. S. Hallidie, Esq. — Dear Sir: I have pleasure in stating that your 
Ropeway, put up at the Chicago Mine, Ophir District, Utah Territory, one year 
ago last summer, has been in constant use ever since, and with the most satisfac- 
tory results. 

The line, as you are aware, is constructed over an extremely rugged country, 
one and one -quarter miles in length. 

For the first mile or so, it is down a very steep mountain side, whence it passes 
over the brow of another one; thence it continues down Dry Canyon at an angle 
of 15 to 18 degrees. 

The structure is an entire success, the cost entire of which has more than been 
saved already, although it has not been worked up to half its capacity. 

In the estimate of earnings no account was taken of supplies sent to the mine, 
including water, etc., by no means an inconsiderable item. 
Truly yours, 

W. S. GODBE, 
Manager Chicago S. M. Co. (Limited.) 



Superintendent's Office, • 1 

Emma Hill Consolidated M. Co., > 

Little Cottonwood, Utah, Dec. 17, 1874.) 
A. S. Hallidie, Esq. — Dear Sir: In answer to your inquiry, I have to 
report that the Ropeway (built August, 1872) continues to work splendidly, 
and with but little wear on the rope. It has been everything that was promised, 
and has proved to be the cheapest way to move ores on steep mountainsides. 
Yours very truly, 

L. U. COLBATH, 

Superintendent. 

Kernville, Kern County, ) 

California, May 6th, 1878. f 
A. S. Hallidie, Esq. — Dear Sir: Your Patent Wire Ropeway, which I 
recently erected at the Harley Mine, near this place, works entirely satisfac- 
torily, effecting a great saving in the cost of transporting ore from the mine to 
the mill, and in sending lumber and supplies to the mine. The cost of trans- 
porting the ore by pack train was five dollars per ton — by your ropeway, it does 
not exceed fifty cents. The length is one mile and a half, the upper end having 
an elevation of over 3,000 feet above the lower end. It crosses a high canyon at 
a height of over 300 feet from the surface of the ground with a single span of 
750 feet; and, altogether, the ground is among the roughest in the Sierra Nevadas. 

Respectfully yours, 

A. BLATCHLY, M. E. 



30 



Chemical Laboratory and General Mining Offices, ) 

504 Washington St., San Francisco, May 15th, 1878. \ 
A. S. Hallidie, Esq. — Dear Sir: In answer to your inquiry about the 
"Wire Ropeway," erected by my advice, for the Blue Jacket Mining Company, 
Bull Run District, Elko County, Nevada, I have pleasure in stating that, under 
the following conditions, it works surpassingly well, and transports the ore by its 
own weight without other power, for nearly a mile, over a rough, descending 
grade of 11 degrees from the mine to the mill, at a cost of about 20 cents per 
ton; thereby saving at least $2 per ton, compared with horses. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. S. PHILLIPS. 



Office of Standard Gold Mining Co. ) 
San Francisco, Oct. 8, 1878. f 
A. S. Hallidie, Esq. — Dear Sir: The Ropeway you erected for us in 
December, 1877, has now been in use over nine months, and has given very 
great satisfaction, enabling us to transport our ore from the mine to the mill, a 
distance of half a mile, without interruption, and during all kinds of weather. 
We send over the line forty-seven tons per day of seven hours, and the saving, 
over the old method of hauling, is fully seventy-five per cent. In addition to 
the important fact of being able to get our ore regularly, regardless of the 
weather, we can send back water lumber, etc, without cost. 

The expense of running the line, bringing down the ore, repairs, &c, is about 
ten dollars per day. 
We are well satisfied with the manner in which it works. 

JOHN H. BOYD, 

Vice-President. 
WM. WILLIS, 

Secretary. 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS 

FOR ERECTING 

HALLIDIE'S ROPEWAY. 



In determining the route it is better to avoid vertical angles, i. e. as 
a rule to go over a hill (if it be not too great) rather than around it, 
and make the line as direct as possible, and in a true line, avoiding 
unnecessary angles. The general appearance of the Ropeway is shown 
in the large engraving on the preceding page. 



Upper Terminus. 

In locating the upper terminus (at the mine) it is important to be as 
near the tunnel's mouth as possible. The horizontal grip pulley 
should be far enough below the level of the tunnel to enable sufficient 
ore to be dumped into the bin to keep the line running for a few days. 

A hopper-shaped ore bin is constructed, into which the ore is 
dumped from the mine; at the lower end it is supplied with a gate 
that permits about 100 lbs. of ore to pass out (at a time, or enough to 
fill one of the ore boxes of the Ropeway, the ore is allowed to run out 
of the mouth of the hopper) into a scoop that is attached to a swinging 
arm, that swings around the shaft of the grip pulley, and while the 
traveling ore boxes on the rope are passing, the scoop travels with it 
and dumps its load into the ore box; or the ore can be simply shoveled 
into the traveling ore boxes as they pass by. 

The grip pulley should therefore be placed — say 20 feet below bot- 
tom of tunnel. The frame that carries the grip pulley is constructed 
as shown in the diagram annexed, Fig. 2. The grip pulley shaft must 
be vertical, and guide pulleys lead the rope fair into the grips of the 
pulleys — (these guide pulleys are placed as near to the grip pulley as 
possible); the frame must be well anchored to a good foundation. 




Figure 2. 
SIDE ELEVATION OF UPPER GRIP PULLEY FRAME. 




Figure 3. 
END ELEVATION OF UPPER GRIP PULLEY FRAME. 

Lower Terminus. 

The lower terminus should be located at, or beyond the point where 
the ore is required to be dumped, and the grip pulley frame should be 
at sufficient elevation to prevent the ore backing up over the track. 
If the ore is to be trans-shipped, then an elevated hopper-shaped bin, 
with escape gates at the lower end will be most convenient — or, the 
ore can be dumped at any suitable point on the line of the Ropeway. 

The grip pulley frame is constructed in the same manner as for the 
upper terminus, but the frame is placed on heavy car wheels that run 
on a suitable track, (Fig. 4). 




T 5~TT\ 



SIDE ELEVATION OF LOWER GRIP PULLEY FRAME. 
Figure 4 



34 



There should be allowed about thirty-five feet travel to each Rope- 
way, in order lo cover the contraction, expansion and stretching of 
the rope. A weight is attached to a wire rope, working over a pulley, 
the other end of which is secured to the grip pulley frame. By this 
means a constant tension is kept on the line. 

In all cases the grip pulleys should be set horizontally. 

At the point where it is desired to dump the ore, the ore buckets 
pass between guides and a stop knocks open the catch, (which holds 
the bottom in place) as the bucket is passing, causing it to drop its 
load ; a counter balance attached to the bottom causes it to close 
again — the guides are either of scantling or bar iron. 



Stations. 

About 150 feet apart, between the two termini, are constructed 
frames called stations, from .14 to 50 feet high, according to circum- 
stances, made from four sticks, which form a pyramid or tower, as 
shown in Fig. 5. 




■HPj 



STATION-FRAME - SIDE "ELEVATION. 
Figure 5. 






I e the center of these towers In a true line, 
from shaft ti> shaft of flip pulleys >>i" termini. In a long line this can 
not always be done, and sometimes angles have to Ik? formed 
around bluffs. In such cases the centre line should pass from angle 
to angle. Or, again — it is necessary to pass around a curve ol 
radius; in this case the sheaves of the statio arranged that 

the rope leads fair into them and is slightly deflected alter leaving the 
sheaves. This will be explained under the head of angles. At the 
top of these frames, at right angles to the line of the Ropeway, there 
is a cross arm usually of 8x8 timber ; the length of the arm being 
about equal to the diameter of the grip pulley. The cross arm is 
well secured to the frame so as not to twist out of position. At the 
extremities of the cross arm are fitted cast iron frames that earn' the 
bearing and guide sheaves. 

The ends of the cross arm are rounded off to eight inches diameter, 
and the cast iron frames are secured to ihem by means of bolts in the 
cast iron frames, which clasp the ends of the arms. (See Fig. 6.) 




Figure 6. 



36 



The object in having the ends of the cross arm round, is to enable 
the cast iron station frames to be adjusted to the horizontal angles 
formed by the rope as it passes on to and off from the bearing sheaves. 
It must be provided that the station sheaves are so arranged that the 
rope always runs on ihem, fairly in line. 

As the rope, when traveling, tends to pull the end of the cross arm 
in the direction it is running, the importance of having these arms 
well braced to resist this tendency will be understood. 

The station frames in some cases carry two sheaves, an upper and 
a lower one, the object of the upper one being to prevent the rope 
jumping out from its place in the groove of the lower sheave. When 
the rope runs with a constant downward strain on the lower pully, a 
guard of cast iron is placed over the sheave to keep the rope in place, 
and the upper sheave is dispensed with, as shown in Fig. 6, and this 
latter is the method now generally adopted, except when the rope is 
apt to have an upward strain. 

Some judgment must be exercised in locating the stations, and 
usually the higher points are selected, for the reason that shorter towers 
have to be built and the rope is not diverted so much from its natural 
curve. 

Occasionally it is necessary to hold the rope down much below the 
point it would naturally sag ; in such a case the larger sheave has only 
a quarter groove, and it is placed above ; the smaller sheave has a 
full grove, and is placed below. See Fig. 5, left hand cross arm. 
But such cases are rare, and it is better to make a span of 300 or 400 
feet between stations. 

The configuration of the ground will in all cases determine the 
height of the stations. If the ground is free from projections and 
obstructions, the height should not be less than 15 feet, where the 
stations are 150 feet apart, increasing in height with the distance be- 
tween the stations. Considerations of depth of snow, crossing wagon 
roads, etc., must not be forgotton. 

Stations should be well secured to the ground, to resist gales, etc. 

After the stations and grip pully frames are up, see that all the 
bearings are well oiled and the working parts run free ; that the brake 
wheels of the grip pulleys work well, and that all your work so far is 
secure. 



PLAN 




GRIP- PULLEY w 



SECTIONAL 



™ BRAKE- WHEEL 



ELEVATION 




Fig. 7- 



38 




Figure 8. 

Grip Pulleys. 

For light lines, grip pulleys are usually six feet in diameter, keyed 
to a shaft 3£ inches in diameter, that runs in a step at the lower end, 
and a box at the upper end, under the pulley. Bolted to the arms of 
the grip pulley, above it, is a brake-wheel with brake-band, furnished 
with adjusting screw and hand-wheel. (See Fig. 7.) The brake is 
used in regulating the speed of the Rope-way, or stopping the same, 
when it runs by gravitation. • Figure 8 is a section of the rim of the 
Grip Pulley, showing the grips and mode of working, h is the rope 
which presses on the gripping j iws i i which rests on the points x x 
of the rim of the wheel L L. 

When the line is level and runs by power this brake is dispensed 
with. 

Stretching the Rope. 

The Wire Rope for an ordinary line of one mile length is usually 
five- eighths of an inch diameter and made of crucible steel wire. 






The oil, if not on a reel, ia placed on a temporary turn table, ami 
the outer end is led through the sheaves from station to station, until 
the coil is exluu it care must be taken to prevent any kink 

felling in the rope — in order to prevent this, it is better to have the 
rope put on a reel. 

If the Ropeway is short, say one-half mile, the rope will probably be 
in one piece, and may be made ol charcoal iron. The two ends are 
brought together at a place convenient for splicing, and by means of 
blocks and tackle, the rope is hauled up taut, and the point of joining 
is marked by tying opposite each other a stop on each rope. The 
mode adopted for splicing is as follows : 

Splicing the Rope. 

There is about eighty-four feet of rope required to put in a good 
smooth long splice. The wire ropes employed in these Ropeways are 
made six strands of seven wires each, and a core or heart; as there are 
two rope ends to splice together, there will consequently be twelve 
strands to be tucked in. Operators usually tie the stops that mark the 
length of rope, about where the center of the splice will be. In this 
case the usual way is to unlay each rope up to that point, and place 
the strands of rope A between the strands of rope B, the core or heart 
of the ropes A and B, being cut off so that the cores of the ropes abu t 
against each other. (See Fig. 9.) There will be then forty-two feet of 
strands each side of the stop, thus: 




Fig 9. 



40 



It is important that each strand should be in its proper place, so that 
none of them cross other strands, or that two strands be not where 
one strand should be (by placing your fingers between each other in 
natural position, this will be understood). Then strand No. 1 of rope 
A is unlaid, and strand No. 1 of rope B follows close, and is laid 
snugly and tightly without kink or bend in its place, until within seven 
feet of the end, a temporary seizing is then put on securing ropes and 
strands at this point. Strand No 1 of rope B is then cut off, leaving 
it seven feet long. Then strand No. 2 of rope A is unlaid and, strand 
2 of rope B is laid in its place to within twenty-one feet of its end. 
Strand No. 3 of rope A is unlaid, and strand No. 3 of rope B is laid 
in its place, within thirty-five feet of end. By this time you have 
reached within seven feet of the center, and reversing the operation, 
unlay strand No. 4 of rope B, and lay in its place strand No. 4 of rope 
A, to within seven feet of its end; unlay No. 5 of rope B, and lay in 
No. 5 of rope A, to within twenty-one feet of its end; finally, unlay 
No. 6 of rope B, and lay in its place No. 6 of rope A, to within thirty- 
five feet of its end. The strands are now all laid in their places and 
seized down for the time being, the ends are cut off, as with the first 
strand, to seven feet in length, and present the appearance, as in 
Fig. 10. 




Al K«b 

Fig. io 

The next opperation is to tuck in the ends, and we will proceed to 
tuck in B 1. It will be remembered that the ropes are made of six 
strands, laid around a core or heart, usually of hemp, of the same size. 
Two clamps (Fig. 11) made for this purpose, are fastened on the rope 
so as to enable the operator to untwist the rope sufficiently to open the 
strands and permit the core to be taken out (see diagram) which is cut 



41 



.. tcavintr a space in the center of the rope; the strand B 1, is 
placed across A 1. and put in the center of the rope in place of the 
extracted core, forming in fact a new core. A flat-nosed T- shaped 
needle used in splicing, the point of which is about one-half inch wide 
bv three- sixteenths of an inch thick, rounded off to an edge, is well 
adapted to this purpose. The strand 1! 1 is laid in its entire length, the 
core being cut off exactly atthe extremity ol strand H 1. so thai when the 
rope is enclosed around the inserted strand, the ends of the strand and 
core should abut. If there is much space left in the center of the rope 
without a core, the rope is liable to loose its proper lorm and some of 
the strands fall in, exposing the projecting strands to undue wear. 
The same operation is performed with A 1. running the other way of 
the rope, and so on. until all the strands are tucked in, which, if 
properly done, will leave the rope as true and round and as strong as 
any other part. 

( Ither operators prefer to start from the end of one rope and conse- 
quent end of splice. The operation is about the same, but the 
experience of the writer justifies him in saying that more care has to be 
used in bringing all the strands to an even tension in the parts spliced. 
Other variations in detail are made according to the fancy or practice 
of the splicer, but after making a few successful splices in manner 
above described, the operator can afterwards vary to suit himself. 

The rope is now spliced into an endless rope, and is in position be- 
tween the station sheaves, and around the end grip pulleys, so that by 
turning the grip pulleys at either end the rope should travel freely. 



Attaching the Clips. 

The next thing is to place the clips and hangers on the rope; the 
number of clips to be placed on the rope depends upon the amount 
of ore to be conveyed, and if it is conveyed in ore sacks, a simple 
hook, or a L-shaped platform is attached to the clip, so that the ore 
sack may be hooked or laid on. Usually the mode of conveying the 
ore is by means of rectangular sheet iron boxes, the bottoms of 
which are on hinges, with counter-balances to close up the bottom 
and a catch to release or retain it. These boxes hold 100 lbs. of ore 
The clips are made of the best steel of the following shape. (See 
Fig. 12, page 42.) 



42 




Figure 12. 
The thin part is warmed and opened thus (See Fig. 13): 




Figure 13. 
so that the rope can be slipped into it, the thin plate being immediately 
closed over and enveloping the same. The thin plate is drawn over 
to its place tightly by driving a punch into the rivet holes, and the 
rivets are then put in and rivetted up. It is thus closely secured to 
the rope, and capable of sustaining a very heavy load, the peculiar 
form of the clip enabling it not only to clasp but to rest on the rope. 
The oute'r washer is removed from the turned part of the clip and 
the eye of the hanger of th'e ore-box is slipped on ; the washer is 
then put back and the pin driven in to secure the same. The ore 
box is now on, ready for use. It will be observed that the hanger of 
the box has a short bend in it; this is to compensate for the projec- 
tion of the clip. The ore box is made of sheet iron, and the bottom 
is hinged at one end, the other end being held in place by means of 
a keeper, which has a projecting arm. As the loaded bucket passes 
the place where the ore is to be delivered, the projecting arm strikes 
a stop, which throws the keeper off the catch, releases the bottom 
of the ore box, and dumps the ore ; a counter-balance attatched to 
the bottom closes the ore box and it is then ready for reloading. (Fig- 
ure 14 is a side view, and Figure 15 an end view of the ore bucket.) 
The clip will naturally hang at right angles to the line of the hanger, 
which is plumb or vertical when it is at rest. (See Figs. 5 and 15.) 
In same manner the remaining clips and ore boxes are put on. In 
no case leave the clip without a hanger, as it is liable to turn over and 
get foul between the station sheaves. 

Direction the Rope should Travel. 

In the absence of any reason to the contrary, the rule in regard to 



is 



the direction the rope should travel, is, that the right hand rope recedes 
vou look towards it, but ii can be made to run cither way. 
When the line ha- anv descent, the most convenient place to put on 
the clips and boxes, is at the upper end — right hand of the grip pulley. 
In a gravitaiion line, by loading the boxes, as they are put on, they 
faciliate the moving of the r 





SELF-DUMPING ORE-BUCKET with HANGER. 



Fig. 14. 



F>&- 15- 



44 



The Ropeway is now ready to put in motion, and if the angle of 
descent is sufiicient, say eight degrees, it will deliver its load to the mill 
by gravitation, and carry back to the mines light loads, such as tools, 
provisions and a fair amount of drift timber. 

The ore boxes being self dumping at the lower terminus, require 
no attendance, and one man can run a line of ordinary length — 
however, the machinery has to be oiled and kept in order, and a man 
should pass over the line to oil and examine the station sheaves, the 
grip pulley gear, etc., every day. 

The rope should be kept well tarred (Sweedish tar and linseed oil, 
4 parts to 1, boiled together, should be used), and all running parts 
kept from rusting. 

No good mechanic need be told that it pays to construct work well, 
and to take care of it afterwards. 

Vertical Angles. 

In long lines, sharp angles have sometimes to be formed around 
bluffs, or the line may have to be diverted so as to reach various 
desirable points, either to discharge or receive ores, or to utilize water 
power, etc. In these cases the angle is made by using horizontal 
sheaves of about six feet diameter. A single sheave, placed horizon- 
tally, makes the angle of the rope, on which the clips project outward; 
but to make the angle ot the rope where the clips project inward, two 
sheaves are required. See upper Fig. 16. 



<D 



vV 




V 



Fig. 16. 



16 



The two sheaves of the interior angles must be placed at different 
levels, so that at the point of intersection of the rope, one part of the 
rope will be sufficiently high above the other part to permit the ore 
box to pars over it, say seven feet, and the sheaves must be set so that 
the rope leads f.iir on to them. 

When the angle is but a few degrees, and of great radius, a series of 
stations are placed continuous to each other, the sheaves of which are 
placed so that the ropt leads on Ihtm fairly, and is deflected slightly 
after leaving the sheaves in the direction of the angle desired. See 
lower diagram Fig. 16. 



To Transport Heavy Loads. 

When it is necessary to transport loads heavier than 200 lbs. on a 
rope five-eighths inch diameter, the number of clips may be increased, 
and placed from two to four feet apart, as shown in Fig. 17. 




Figure 17 






kV^) j 



Figure 18. 



46 



A car is shown in Fig. 18, which may be found very useful in cer- 
tain cases, as it economizes in manual labor. A small car is mounted 
on wheels, so that it can be run into the mine. It has a carrying 
frame above, the longitudinal beam of which is inclined, so as to cor- 
respond wilh that of the standard. Both are toothed, the former on 
its lower, and the latter on its upper side. Now, if the car be run 
into position when the standards, which are attached to the rope, come 
around, they will catch and carry off the car without any manual labor, 
and at the discharging point the car strikes an incline, which raises it 
sufficiently high to clear the toothed beam. The teeth on the beams 
prevent any slipping. 

Estimates furnished, contracts entered into, or reliable men sent to 
superintend construction. 

For further information, address the patentee, 

A. S. HALLIDIE, P. 0. Box 2050, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Secured under U. S. Patents Nos. 100,140, 110,971, ri5,309, 115,310, I2r, 776, 
I24,39r, t27,690, 143,087, 162,915, and applications now pending. 



Velocity of Water in Pipes and Sewers. 

Table of the heads of water necessary to maintain different velocities of 
water in 100 feet of pipe. 

V represents the velocities in feet per minute, and C the constant 
number for those velocities. 



V C 

60 8.62 

70 11.40, 

80 14.58 



V C 

90 17.95 

100 21.56 

120 29.70 



V C 

140 38.90 

150 44. 

180 62.13 



Table of the constant number for different velocities. 
D represents diameter of pipe, in inches, and c the constant number 
for their diameters. 



D 


c 


D 


c 


4 


.028 


6 


.078 


5 


.053 


7 


.104 



D 



.134 



Rule. Then when H represents the head of water D x C=H. 

Example. It is required to determine what head of water would be 
necessary to send water through 1500 feet of six-inch pipe, to an 
elevation of 80 feet, and at a velocity of 180 feet per minute. 



C=i'--2 18+ (6 - 7B— 10.3S in. which x 15 (the number 

of 100 feet) =153.3 in. (12 ft. in.) this added to 80 gives 92 ft. 
91 in., answer. 

The lime occupied in an equal quantity of water through a pipe or 
sewer of equal length and with equal falls, is proportionately as follows: 
In a tight line, as 90, in a true curve, as 100 and in a right angle 
as 140. 

Velociix nf Streams an! Resistance of Soils. 



Velocity 

In Feet In Miles 

Ordinary nature of current. per Sec. per Hour. 

Very Slow 0.26 0.171 

Gliding 0.50 0.341 

Gentle 1.00 Q.682 

Regular 2.00 1.364 

Ordinary velocity 3.00 2.046 

Rapid Floods 3.35 2.284 

Rapid Floods, (extraordinary). 3.50 2.380 

Torrents and Cataracts 9.86 6.723 



Materials that resist these 
velocities and yield to 
more powerful ones. 

Wei Ground — Mud. 

Soft Clay. 

Sand. 

Gravel. 

Stony. 

Broken Stones, 

Flints etc. 
Collected Boulders, 
soft Schistose. 
Hardened Rock. 



Blasting. 

In small blasts 1 lb. powder will loosen 4£ tons. 

In large blasts 1 lb. powder will loosen 2j tons. 

One man can bore with a bit 1 inch diameter from 50 to 100 inches 
per day of 18 hours, in granite, or 300 to 400 inches per day in 
limestone. 

Two strikers and a holder can bore with a 2 inch bit 10 ft. per day 
in rock of medium hardness. 

At the depth of 45 feet the temperature of the earth is uniform 
throughout the year. 



Overshot Water- Wheel. 

Rule to ascertain Rower. — Multiply the weight of water, in lbs. 
discharged upon the wheel in one minute, by the height or distance, 
in feet, from the lower edge of the wheel to the center of the opening 



48 



in the gate; divide the product by 50,000, and the quotient is the 
number of horses' power. 

Example. Suppose the weight of water discharged per minute is- 
39,000 lbs. If the height of the fall is 23 feet, the diameter of the 
wheel is 22, what is the power of the wheel? 

22 feet less 8 inches clearance below=22' 4"=22.33. 39,000x 
22.33=870,870-7-50,000=17.41 horse-power. 

Rule to ascertain Velocity of Water and Weight per minute, 
in pounds, discharged on Overshct Water-wheel. — Extiact square 
of height of head of water ^from surface to middle of gate) and multiply 
by 8 if the opening is large and head small; if the reverse, multiply by 
5.5; or, from 8 to 5.5 in proportion to size of opening and head of 
water. 

Example. The dimensions ol the stream are 2 by 80 inches, with a 
head of 2 feet to upper surface of water. What is the velocity of the 
water per minute? 

2 feet plus half of 2ins.=25 ins.=2.08, the square of which is 1.44 
X6.5(estimate of velocity)=9.36x 60=561. 60 feet. 

What is its weight? 

Example. 80 inches X 2x6739.20 inches (=561.60 feet)= 
l,078,272-=-1728 (inches in a cubic foot)=624 cubic feetx 62* lbs. 
(weight of cubic foot of water) =39,000 lbs. weight discharged in one 
minute. 

To Find the Quantity of Water which will Flow Out of 
an Opening. 

Rule. — Multiply the square root of the depth of the water by 5.4; 
the product is the velocity in feet per second; this multiplied by the 
area of the opening' in feet will give the number of cubic feet per 
second. 

Example. If the centre of an opening is 10 feet below the surface 
of the water, and its area is 2 feet, what quantity of water will run out 
in one minute? 

^10=3.16x5.4x2=34.1496 feet= (34 1-7 feet.) 

Water will fall through 1 foot in £ second, 4 feet in i second, 9 
feet in £ second, and so on — being actuated by the same laws as 
falling bodies 



r> 




Transmission of Power by Wire Ropes. 



50 

Transmission of Power by Means of Wire Rope. 

Wire Rope is employed extensively for conveying power from one 
point to another, as in the case of a mill situated half a mile or so 
from the water wheel from which power is obtained, and has been 
found to be very economical and durable. In France and Germany 
Wire Rope is used wherever an economic motive power exists and 
can be attached, in many cases there being 5 or 6 miles between the 
motive power and the machinery to be set in motion. Considerable 
attention is now paid to this method of transmission, and the econ- 
omy and simplicity of its application are very strong recommendations 
in its favor. The manufacture of flexible ropes from steel wire, hav- 
ing great strength, with lightness and elasticity, insures the extensive 
application of this system. Evidently the power which can be trans- 
mitted by this plan, under given positions, depends upon the adhesion 
existing between the rope and the pulley, and the amount of this adhe- 
sion determines the velocity of motion of the rope, in order to trans- 
mit any given power. When, by a peculiar construction of the pulley, 
the adhesion is made equal, or nearly so, to the strength of the rope, 
the velocity of the rope can be made to be quite slow, while at the 
same time transmitting great power. This is done by means of Grip 
Pulleys, where the rims of the pulleys are made up of a great number 
of clips operating on the principle of the toggle pint, to clamp the 
rope firmly between them while they are drawn down together by the 
force of the strain that is put upon the rope. As soon as the rope is 
released from strain, the clips open readily for its free escape as it 
leaves the pulley. From experiments made with Grip Pulleys of this 
construction, which have been patented, it has been ascertained that 
the gripping power varies with the angle at which the clips are set, 
and is from 40 to 100 times the strain of the slack rope, or of the 
rope paying on from the slack side. The shape of that part of the 
clip which receives the rope is the same as that of the rope, and 
since there is no slipping of the rope between the clips, the wear upon 
it when in use is very slight. By reference to figs. 7 and 8, pages 37 
and 38, the operation of the clips will be readily understood. 

The rope is denoted by h; i, i are clips working on a fulcrum 
xx. The rope pressing on the clips at the bottom, as it enters 
them, causes them to close over it, gripping it securely and pre- 
venting its slipping. The part of the rim, k, is cast separately 
and bolted to the main wheel, /, by a bolt. The rim of the wheel is 
cast with recesses to take the clips, fitting to them and allowing them to 
work freely; while the clips cannot possibly be displaced except by 



51 



removing the part k, which is cast separate forthis purpose. From this 
it will be readily understood that the rcfpe is grasped as soon as the pres- 
sure begins to ait on the clips and is released as soon as the pres- 
sure is removed, the whole acting automatically and invariably. For 
(MM? over long distances, this feature is of the greatest 
value. In this svstem the rope is made of strength sufficient for the 
transmission, and moves at velocity of from 300 to 800 feet per 
minute. 

With the high speed system the rope is of smaller size, and travels 
at a velocity of from 1,500 to 6,000 feet per minute. In order to 
prevent the too rapid wear of the rope, the high speed pulleys are 
made with gutta percha sealing for the rope. A dovetailed groove is 
made in the rim of the pulley, into which the gutta percha is forced 
in the shape of small blocks, dovetailing on the sides, and having a 
score on the top. When the groove is filed with these blocks, they 
present a firm and elastic seat for the rope, giving the greatest adhesion 
possible under the circumstances; or, instead of using gutta percha 
blocks, hard rubber belting may be used, being cut in strips of suffi- 
cient depth for the dovetailed groove of the pulley, and placed side 
by side, so that the rope will run on the edge of the rubber belt- 
ing. The strips are driven in tight and held together by being glued. 

The accompanying cut shows the mode of constructing the high 
speed pulleys, and the advantage these have over the grip pulley is, 
that a much smaller rope can be used, the proportion being as the 
velocity of the rope. 




In many places in France and Germany, vast amounts of power are 
transmitted. At Shaffhausen, Switzerland, the water-fall is economized 
through an overshot water-wheel, and by means of Wire Rope, 600- 
horse-power is transmitted for a distance of one mile, and thence 
distributed by means of other smaller Wire Ropes to various factories. 
The whole Pacific Coast is full of water-powers, and a knowledge of 



52 



this mode of transmission of power will make many of these water 
privileges available. 

A table of dimensions and velocities has been inserted, which will 
be found convenient for reference in ascertaining the size and 
speed of ropes and pulleys, to transmit any given power, either by 
high speed and smooth pulleys, or by low speed, and the patent grip 
pulleys. 



Transmission Pulleys. 

APPROXIMATE TABLE OF DIMENSIONS AND VELOCITIES. 



HIGH SPEED. 


LOW SPEED. 


o 






"5 co 
2 "a 


a 


< 






T3 W 

2 "a 


a 

53" 


to 

a> 

< 




Circumfer- 


3 g. 


3 

n 


o. 


Circumfer- 


3 8. 


3 


5* 


o 


ence of 


I's, 


>-t 


o' 


ence of 


I'a. 




o' 


3- 


ROPES. 


."* 


o 


3 

C/3 


ropes. 


S * 


o 


3 


""* 






. O 


^ 


O 






. o 


^ 


O 








. n> 










a> 


n 


3 








■ 5" 










■ 5" 


~ 


IT 




Steel. 


Iron. 


fD 






Steel. 


Iron. 








2 


fin 


1 in 


1000 


' 4 


80 


1 in 


Hin 


400 


4 


32 


3 


fin 


liin 


1000 


4 


80 


1 in 


Hin 


600 


4 


48 


4 


fin 


Hin 


1250 


4 


100 


liin 


If in 


400 


4 


32 


5 


fin 


liin 


1500 


4 


120 


liin 


If in 


500 


4 


40 


6 


fin 


Hin 


1750 


4 


140 


liin 


If in 


600 


4 


48 


8 


liin 


If in 


1570 


5 


100 


liin 


2 in 


509 


6 


27 


10 


14 in 


If in 


1880 


5 


120 


If in 


2£in 


603 


6 


32 


15 


liin 


Hin 


2260 


6 


120 


If in 


2i in 


416 


6 


22 


20 


liin 


Hin 


2420 


7 


110 


2 in 


2£in 


506 


7 


23 


25 


liin 


Hin 


2640 


7 


120 


2iin 


2i in 


502 


8 


20 


30 


If in 


If in 


2750 


8 


120 


2iin 


2f in 


603 


8 


24 


40 


If in 


2 in 


2260 


9 


80 


2iin 


2f in 


424 


9 


15 


50 


If in 


2 in 


2820 


9 


100 


2iin 


3 in 


509 


9 


18 


60 


1| in 


2 in 


3400 


9 


120 


2f in 


3iin 


502 


10 


16 


80 


liin 


2iin 


3800 


10 


120 


2f in 


3iin 


597 


10 


19 


100 


If in 


2f in 


3200 


12 


85 


2Jin 


3£ in 


603 


12 


16 


120 


If in 


2gin 


3260 


13 


80 


3 in 


3f in 


603 


12 


16 


150 


2 in 


2* in 


3620 


14 


80 


3iin 


4 in 


616 


14 


14 


200 


2 in 


2£in 


5280 


14 


120 


3f in 


5 in 


704 


14 


16 


250 


2iin 


2f in 


4710 


15 


100 


4 in 


5£in 


704 


16 


14 


300 


2iin 


2f in 


5650 


15 


120 


4i in 


6 in 


704 


16 


14 



.->:? 



In practice for a distance less than 40 or 50 feet, there is not much 
economy in using Wire Rope, and the span between the pulleys should 
not exceed 4int feet; without supporting pulleys, which should not be 
smaller than the driving or driver pulley, and should also be rubber 
lined. 

Instead of supporting pulleys at intervals of from 150 to 400 feet 
according to circumstances, and a long rope; in some cases it is more 
advantageous to use a series of endless ropes and double pulleys, the 
ropes being much shorter are more easily repaired. 

For mode of splicing transmission ropes, seepages 39 — 40. 

Patent Grip Pulleys. 
These pulleys are made expressly for the purpose of transmitting 
power by means of Steel or Iron Wire Ropes. 

By referring to the diagrams on pages 37 and 38, ligs. 7 and 8, and 
the description on same pages, their mode of action can be readily 
understood. 

By means of these Grip Pulleys, it is possible to transmit power from 
one point to another, and to the limit of the strength of the rope 
employed. 

It will thus be seen that this arrangement is adapted for conveying 
power from a waterfall in a river, or where there is a large stationary 
engine, to any point desired, one, three or five miles distant, the Wire 
Rope, being supported on pulleys at intervals in order to keep the rope 
off the ground, and lead it in the proper direction. 

As a means of transmitting power from a portable steam engine to 
a threshing machine it enables the farmer to keep his steam engine 
sufficiently far from the grain to avoid conflagration. 

It is the most economical and convenient mode of transmitting 
power, and is available for innumerable cases, and any locality, as the 
rope cannot slip in the groove, and the pulley does not wear the rope, 
as a concave drum, capstan, or figure of 8 pulley does. 

For hoisting works in a mine where a car is attached to both ends 
of the rope, for an incline, vertical or horizontal shaft, it is admirably 
adapted, economizing in machinery and wear of rope. 

For steam plowing by means of ropes it works to great advantage, 
being much simpler in its action than any form of pulley. 

For transmitting power to rope traction, or cable street railroads, 
the Grip Pulleys are well suited, The Clay Street Hill R. R. Co. 
employs two Grip Pulleys, side by side, for working their rope, on their 
incline of 1 in 9, 11,000 feet long, carrying 8,000 to 10,000 passengers 
per day. 

These pulleys are made all sizes, but the size of the grip pulley 
should not be less than 1,000 times the size of the wire from which 
the rope is made, or about 100 times the size of the rope, 

Accompanying cuts show the application of these pulleys for various 
purposes. 

Price of Patent Grip Pulleys. 
Diameter, feet 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
Price, $30 $50 $80 $125 $150 $200 $280 $320 

For Ropeways a special kind of Wire Rope is manufactured. 



54 




56 




58 



Weight per square fool of sheets of different metals. Thickness by 
Sharp & Browns Guage. 







Wrought 








GUAGE 


Thickness 


Iron. 


Steel. 


Copper. 


Brass. 




INCH. 


LB-. 


LBS. 


LBS. 


LBS. 


0000 


.40 


1X.4575 


18.7030 


20.838 


19.088 


000 


.40904 


10.4308 


10.0559 


18.5507 


17.5323 


00 


.3048 


14.G370 


14.8328 


10.525 1 


15.0134 





.3248 


13.0351 


13.2088 


14.7102 


13.904 


1 


.2893 


1I.0H82 


11.7029 


13.1053 


12.382 


2 


.2570 


10.3374 


10.4752 


11.0700 


11.0206 


3 


.2:294 


9.2055 


9.3283 


10.3927 


9.8192 


4 


.2043 


8.1979 


8.3073 


92552 


8.7445 


5 


.1819 


7.3004 


7.3977 


8.2419 


7.787 





.1020 


0.5011 


0.5878 


7.3395 


0.9345 


7 


.1443 


5.7892 


5.8004 


0.5359 


01752 


8 


.1285 


5.1557 


5.2244 


5.8206 


5.4994 


9 


.1144 


4.5915 


4.0527 


5.1837 


4.8970 


10 


.1019 


4.0884 


4.1428 


4.0150 


4.3009 


11 


.0907 


3.041 


3.0890 


4.1100 


3.8838 


12 


.0808 


3.2424 


3.2850 


3.0000 


3.4580 


13 


.0712 


2.8874 


2.9259 


3.2593 


3.0799 


14 


.0041 


2.5714 


2 0057 


2.903 


2.7428 


15 


.0571 


2.2899 


2.3201 


2.5852 


2.4425 


1.0 


.0501 


2.0392 


2.0064 


2.3021 


2.1751 


17 


.0452 


1.8159 


1.8402 


2.0501 


1.937 


18 


.0403 


1.0172 


1.0387 


1.8257 


1.725 


19 


.0359 


1.44 


1.4593 


1.0258 


1.5361 


20 


.0312 


1.2824 


1.2995 


1.4478 


1.3679 


21 


.0285 


1.142 


1.1573 


1.2893 


12182 


22 


.0253 


1.017 


1.0300 


1.1482 


1.0849 


23 


.0220 


.9057 


.9177 


1.0225 


.96004 


24 


.0201 


.8005 


.8173 


.91053 


.80028 


25 


.0179 


.7182 


.7278 


.81087 


.70012 


20 


.0159 


.0390 


.0481 


J22H8 


.08223 


27 


.0142 


.5090 


.5772 


.04303 


.00755 


28 


.0120 


.5072 


.514 


.57204 


.54103 


29 


.01120 


.4517 


.4577 


.50994 


.4818 


30 


.0100 


.4023 


.4070 


.45413 


.42907 


31 


.00893 


.3582 


.303 ' 


.40444 


.38212 


32 


.00795 


.319 


.3232 


.30014 


.34026 


33 


.00708 


.2841 


.2879 


.32072 


.30302 


34 


.0003 


.2529 


.2503 


.28557 


.20981 



For comparative thickness of guage, see page 58. 



59 



Weight of Bar Iron. 



Square, from \ to 2\ inch, iind 1 foot long. 



?i*e 


S c 


Wghi. in 


Wght in 
in liuhs. Lbs. 




in lochs. 


in Inchs. 


Lis. 


in Inchs. LliS 


ft ,it.-> 

1 .846 


ft 




13, 6.390 


If 11.880 


1 


3 380 


14 7.G04 


2 13.520 


% 1.820 


1ft 


I 278 


ljj 8.926 


2J 17.112 


J l.'JOl 


U 


5.280 


1 | 1(1.852 


24 21.120 



Hound Bar from J to 1\ inches diameter and \foot long. 



Diam'tr 


Wl. in lbs 


Diam'tr. Wght. in lbs. 


Diam'tr. Wght n Lbs. 


Diarn tr. Wgl-.t in Hi. 


f 


.373 


f 2.032 


If 5.019 


If 9.333 


4 


.666 


1 2.654 


14 5.972 


2 10.616 


f 


1.043 


If 3.360 


If 7.010 


2* 13.440 


i 


1.493 


U 4.172 


1J 8.128 


2* 16.680 



Flat Bar from §x£ /o 5x1 and 1 _/W /»«.". 



Size 


Wght. in 
L s. 


Size in 


Wght. in 


Size in 


Wght. in 


Size in 


W,ht' in 


in Inchs 


Inchs. 


Lbs. 


Inchs. 


Lbs. 


Inchs. 


Lbs 


f*ft 


0.316 


lfxi 


1.479 


24x£ 


2.112 


3x1 


10.138 


H 


0.633 


1M 


2.218 


2*xg 


3.168 


3£x| 


2.957 


M 


0.950 


11x4 


2.957 


24x4 


4.224 


34x8 


4.436 


frft 


0.369 


Hxf 


3.696 


2*xf 


5.280 


34x4 


5.914 


ft** 


0.738 


2xi 


1.689 


24xf 


6.336 


34x4 


7.393 


1x14 


0.422 


2x| 


2.534 


2Jxi 


2.323 


34x| 


8.871 


i4 


0.845 


2xJ 


3.379 


2*xg 


3.485 


34x1 


11.828 


IxS, 


1.267 


2xf 


4.2S4 


2JxJ 


4.647 


4x£ 


3.380 


1M 


0.528 


2xg 


5.069 


2?xjf 


5.803 


4xJ 


6.759 


lHi 


1.056 


2*xi 


1.900 


2xf* 


6.970 


4xJ 


10,138 


Hx# 


1.584 


2ixf 


2.851 


3x± 


2.535 


4x1 


13.518 


lft*4 


0.633 


2*xi 


3.802 


3x# 


2.802 


5xJ 


4.224 


14x* 


1.266 


2*xf 


4.750 


3x^ 


5.069 


5x4 


8.449 


UxS 


1.900 


2ixf 


5.703 


3x$ 


6.337 


5xf 


12.673 


i*4 


2.535 


2Axi 


2112 


3xJ 


7.604 


5x1 


16.897 



To convert into weight of other metals, multiply the above for cast 
Iron by .93; for Steel xl.01; for Copperxl.15; for Brassxl.09; 
for Lead x 1.48; for Zinc x. 92. 



60 



Length of Cut Nails and Number in one Pound. 





3d 


4d 


5d 


6d 


8d 


lOd 


12d 


20d 


30d 


40d 


Lenglh 

No. in Lbs.. . . 


11 
420 


270 


14 
220 


2 
175 


2i 
100 


3 
65 


52 


3J 

28 


4 
24 


20 



Measure of Rock, Earth, Etc. 

25 cubic feet of sand equal 1 ton. 
18 cubic feet of earth equal 1 ton. 

17 cubic feet of clay equal 1 ton. 

13 cubic feet of quartz, unbroken in lode, equal 1 ton. 

18 cubic feet of gravel or earth, before digging, equal 27 cubic feet 
when dug. 

20 cubic feet of quartz broken (of ordinary fineness coming from 
the lode), equal 1 ton contract measurement. 



SI 



Table thawing Sat, Weight and Length oj Iron Wire ( Worcester Gauge). 



1 'dunrter 


Area lltimatc 


Wcthl of 


Wt. of t mile. 


Feet in 63 


Feet in 3,000 lbs. 


No*. | Inches. 


■^uarc inch. Mrength 


ico feel. 


lb,. 


lbs. 


Feet. 










Keet. 




(XHMI 


.899 


.1213(H) 


'.(.701 


10.94 


2163. 


154 


4,885 


(Mill 


.362 


.102900 


8,232 


84.73 


1834. 


181 


5.759 


00 


MM 




6,883 


29.04 


1533. 


217 


6,886 





.323 


.081930 


6.754 


27.66 


1460. 


22S 


72.30 


1 




.062900 


5,032 


21.2!! 


1121. 


296 


9,425 


2 


,368 


.054320 


1,846 


18.34 


968. 


343 


10,905 


3 


.244 


.046759 


3,741 


L6.78 


833. 


399 


12,674 


4 


.225 


.039760 


3,181 


13.39 


707. 


470 


14,936 


•". 


.2(17 


.033663 


2.6! 12 


11.35 


599. 


555 


17,621 


6 


.192 


.028952 


2,312 


9.7:) 


514. 


647 


20,555 


7 


.177 


.02461 15 


1,968 


8.03 


439. 


75!) 


24,906 


8 


.162 


.11211612 


1,64c: 


6.96 


367. 


905 


28,734 


9 


.148 


.017203 


1,376 


5.08 


306. 


1,086 


34,483 


Id 


.135 


.014313 


1,144 


4.83 


255. 


1,304 


41,408 


11 


.120 


.011309 


904 


3.82 


202. 


1,649 


52,356 


12 


.105 


.008659 


693 


2.92 


154. 


2,158 


68,493 


13 


.092 


.006647 


532 


2.24 


118. 


2,813 


89,286 


14 


.080 


.0(15260 


421 


1.69 


89. 


3,728 


118,343 


15 


.(172 


.004071 


328 


1.37 


72. 


4,598 


145,985 


16 


.063 


.003117 


248 


1.05 


55. 


6,000 


190,476 


17 


.054 


.002290 


184 


.77 


41. 


8,182 


259,740 


18 


.047 


.001734 


138 


.58 


31. 


10,862 


344,827 


19 


.041 


.001320 


105 


.45 


24. 


14,000 

F» In ,n 11, 


444,444 


20 


.035 


.000963 




.32 


17. 


it. in 12 iu 

3,750 


625,000 


21 


.032 


.000803 




.27 


14. 


4,444 


740,741 


22 


.028 


.000615 




.21 


11. 


5,714 


952,381 


23 


.025 


.000491 




.17 


9. 


7,059 


1,176,500 


24 


.023 


.000415 




.14 


7.4 


8,571 


1,428,580 


25 


.020 


.000314 




.11 


5.8 


10,909 


1,818,180 


26 


.018 


.000254 




.085 


4.5 


14,117 


2,352,940 


27 


.017 


.000227 




.076 


4.0 


15,790 


2,631.580 


28 


.016 


.000201 




.067 


3.54 


17,910 


2,986,560 


29 


.015 


.000176 




.059 


3.11 


21,340 


3,390,000 


30 


.014 


.000154 




.052 


2.75 


23,080 


3,846,150 


31 


.013 


.000133 




.045 


2.38 


26,660 


4,444,444 


32 


.012 


.000113 




.038 


2.00 


31,600 


5,263,160 


33 


.011 


.000095 




.032 


1.69 


37,500 


6,250,000 


34 


.010 


.000078 




.026 


1.37 


46,154 


7,692,310 


35 


.0095 


.000071 




.024 


1.27 


50,000 


8,333,333 


36 


.009 


.000064 




.022 


1.16 


54,545 


9,090,909 


37 


.0085 


.000057 




.019 


1.03 


63,160 


10,526,520 


38 


.008 


.000050 




.017 


.897 


70,600 


11,764,700 


39 


.0075 


.000044 




.015 


.792 


80,000 


13,333,333 


40 


.00725 


.000041 




.014 


.739 


85,715 


14,285,710 



62 



The strength of the wires on the preceding page is taken at 80,000 
lbs. per square inch ; and the table of ultimate strength, is for hard 
or bright wire. Annealing or softening reduces the tensile strength, 
about 40 per cent. 



For the guidance of those using or requiring wire for particular 
purposes, the following table of the different guages in use, may be 
of advantage: 





Worcester. 


Trenton. 


Birmingham. 


Brown & Sharp. 


Nos. 












Diame'er. 


Diameter. 


Diameter. 


Diame'er. 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 





.323 


.305 


.331 


.32486 


1 


.283 


.285 


.300 


.28930 


2 


.263 


.265 


.280 


.25763 


3 


.244 


.245 


.260 


.22942 


4 


.225 


.225 


.240 


.20431 


5 


.207 


.205 


.220 


.18194 


6 


.192 


.190 


.200 


.16202 


7 


.177 


.175 


.165 


.14428 


8 


.162 


.160 


.170 


.12849 


9 


.148 


.145 


.155 


.11443 


10 


.135 


.130 


.140 


.10189 


11 


.120 


.1175 


.125 


.09074 


12 


.105 


.105 


.110 


.08080' 


13 


.091 


.0925 


.095 


.07196 


14 


.080 


.080 


.085 


.06408 


15 


.072 


.070 


.075 


.05706 


16 


.063 


.061 


.050 


.0508 


17 


.054 


.0525 


.045 


.0452 


18 


.047 


.045 


.040 


.0403 


19 


.041 


.038 


.035 


.0359 


20 


.035 


.033 


.030 


.03196 



1 he Gauge in use at my Wire Mills is the Worcester Guage, 
In ordinary wire when great accuracy is requisite, the diameter desired 
should be given. 



STREET RAILROADS 



WORKED BY 



ENDLESS TRAVELING WIEE E0FIS 



While Mr. Hallidie was engaged in maturing his system of endless 
wire Ropeway or wire Tramway, it was suggested to him by a well 
known citizen of San Francisco, that if he could solve the problem of 
cheap and rapid passenger transit over the steep streets of this city he 
would be doing a good thing for the property on the hills surrounding 
the city, and would enable the residents to enjoy greater sanitary ad- 
vantages and more agreeable prospects. 

Acting on this suggestion Mr. Hallidie devoted himself closely to 
the consideration of the subject, and after careful thought and experi- 
ment, matured a system of street railroading by which the cars are 
hauled up the steepest streets and most changeable grades by a con- 
stant traveling rope concealed in a tube under ground. The surface 
of the street presenting the same appearance, and no more obstruction 
than any other street in the city having a railroad on it, and in no way 
interfering with the ordinary traffic or business on the streets. 

This system, for which he has obtained numerous patents, was 
adopted by the Clay Street Hill Railroad Company, August, 1873, by 
the Sutter Street Railroad Company, February, 1877, and the Califor- 
nia Street Railroad Company, April, 1878. 

All these roads have been constantly running since the above dates, 
and have demomstrated to the most skeptical the superiority and 
economy of this system, over any other for city traffic. 

Although the inaccessibility of the hills, and the consequent steep- 
ness of the streets was the immediate cause of this invention, yet its 
applicability is not confined to heavy grades, nor is its great economy 
as compared to horse railroads so clearly demomstrated as it would 



64 



be on a comparatively level road, where it can work in fair and direct 
competition with the present system of horse railroads. 

Nor does the City of San Francisco give any oppotunitv for a prac- 
tical illustration of the usefulness of this system during cold winter 
days, and heavy falls of snow, both of which are absent in the mild 
winters of this city where the thermometer rarely reaches the freezing 
point, and snow is never seen. 

The difficulties in keeping a line of street railroad open during the 
winter in many of the northern cities, are almost innumerable. The 
snow, and slush or ice, giving a poor footing to the horses employed 
in hauling the snow plows, scrapers and sweepers used in clearing the 
railroad tracks. By the endless rope system, these difficulties are 
largely overcome, as the rope furnishes a hauling power superior to 
any number of horses, and at nominal expense, and by means of 
which the tracks can be kept well cleared of snow and ice, while hot 
water pipes which run inside the tube through which the rope travels, 
prevents any freezing in its vicinity. 

This system of street railroads is adapted to all kinds of city or 
town railroading, where the surface of the street has to be kept free 
from obstructions, where locomotives are not permitted, or where the 
grades are too heavy to permit the use of horses, locomotives, or Steam 
traction engines. 

A description of the Clay street Hill Railroad will best explain its 
mode of working. 

Clay Street is a central street in the City of San Francisco, and is 
closely built up by residences, it is but forty-nine feet wide from house 
to house, and between the sidewalk is occupied by two lines of gas 
pipes, one line of water pipe, a street sewer, and at the cross streets 
by water cisterns. , 

It is one of the oldest streets in the city, and the eastern terminus of 
the street railroad is at the old plaza where it intersects Kearny street. 
In the distance of 2791 feet west Clay street is crossed by six streets 
and reaches an elevation of 307 feet. Beyond in the distance of 1925 
feet it is crossed by four streets and descends 160 feet, and for a further 
distance of 471 feet has an ascent of 15 feet to the west terminus of 
the railroad. The cross streets at their intersection with Clay street are 
level or rather a little curving, and vary in width from 45' 5" feet to 
68' 9". 

By referring to Fig. 1, showing Clay street in section, the contour 
of the hill will be seen. 






The si I in 8; ami the entire length of the line is 

6197 feet, occupying 12 minutes in transit. 

The conditions to be used in lttiilding the road were that there should 
Ik- no more impediment to ordinarj business ofthestreel 

than the usual street railroad; thai the cars I is quickly 

on any part of the road, and should he under thi | mtrol ofthe 

conductor; that the cars should he easily ami smoothly started; that it 
should be worked more economically than with horses; that no motor 
would he permitted that should frighten horses or endanger the lives 
of citizens, and that the cars should run regularly during the hours of 
(i A. M. and 11:30 P. M., picking up and landing passengers at any 
street crossing. 

The system determined on by Mr. Hallidie and adopted by him in 
the construction of the Clay Street Railroad met all these conditions, 
and the road was inaugurated on the 1st August, 1873, and has been 
in operation ever since, and without interruption up to this time, (June 
1879.) 

The engine and machinery are located at the top ofthe hill, See Fig. 
1, and consists of a pair of 14x28 in. cylinders with a piston speed of 
420 ft. per minute. From the engine the power is transmitted through 
a pinion and spur wheel to a grip pulley 8 ft. diameter, (for descrip- 
tion see pages 37 and 38), which actuates an endless steel wire rope 
1 inch diameter and 11,000 feet long. 

The road has a double track of three and one-half feet gauge, and 
underneath the tracks and between the rails, there are tubes about two 
feet deep and eighteen inches wide, running the entire length of the 
road, and at intervals of about forty feet there are carrying pulleys in 
the tube (see fig. 6.,) and at the termini of the road, are horizontal 
pulleys of about eight feet diameter. 

The Wire Rope is lead from the Engine Room by means of suitable 
pulleys into the tubes above refered to, passing through one tube 
around the horizontal pulley at the terminus, then through the other 
tube around the horizontal pulley at the other terminus, through the 
back into the Engine Room, and is supported on the carrying pulleys 
in the tube; these pullleys are twelve inches diameter except where 
there is a change oT direction downwards, the pulleys at these points 
are four feet diameter, and at the change in the diameter of the rope 
upwards, there are depending pulleys of small diameter, the space at 
the crown of the tube being quite limited. 

Along the entire length of each tube, at the top, and reaching to the 
surface of the street is an opening or slot, (See Fig. 6), sufficiently large 



66 



to allow the passage of a bar of iron or shank of a "grip", but not 
large enough to permit a carriage wheel to enter. This slot is nordi- 
rectly over the wire rope in the tubef but sufficiently on one side of it 
to permit the use of the upper or depending pulley for the purpose Jof 
depressing the rope at the change of direction upward, and to avoid' 
the falling of water, dirt, etc. on the rope, as well as to permit the foot 
of the "grip" to pass by and under the upper pulley. 

It will be understood now that when the engine is set in motion it 
causes the endless wire rope to travel in the tube between the upper 
and lower pulleys thereof, and that in order to utilize the traveling rope- 
there must be a means of connecting it with the cars which run on the- 
tracks on the surface of the streets. But it will be observed that in a. 
street railroad where the grades are uniform or comparatively level, 
the upper or depending pulley is not required. 

The connection between the cars on the street and the traveling 
rope in the tube is made by means of a "grip" which is described as 
follows: 

Figure 4 is a skeleton view of the patent gripping attachment,, 
and Fig. 5 is a perspective view. A vertical slide works in a shank,, 
and is moved up and down by a screw and hand-wheel. The screw- 
is shown in Fig. 4. The small upper screw going down through the- 
large hollow screw, operates it. At the lower end of this slide is a. 
wedge-shaped block. The wedge actuates two jaws horizontally, 
which open and close according to the direction in which the slide is. 
moved, closing when the slide is moved upward. These jaws have 
pieces of soft cast iron placed in them, which are easily removed 
when worn out. These pieces of iron are of proper shape and size- 
inside to grip the rope when they are closed over it. 

On both sides of these jaws and attached to them, are four small 
pulleys. These pulleys are held by means of rubber cushions,, 
sufficiently in advance of the jaws to keep the rope off from the 
jaws, and at the same time to lead the rope fairly between them,, 
allowing it to travel freely between the jaws, when they are- 
separated, without touching them. When it is required to grip the 
rope, this slide is drawn up by means of the small screw and hand: 
wheel before described, and the wedge, at the lower end closes the 
jaws over the rope, at the same time forcing back the small guide 
sheaves on to the rubber cushions. The shank, containing the 
slide, etc., is enclosed and retained in cast-iron slides, attached' 
to the body of the dummy, Fig. 2, and a wrought iron standard, 
having a large nut at its upper end in which the large hollow screw 



67 



works as shown in Fig. 4. The "grip" is raised and lowered bodily 
through the opening in the tube from above the surface of the street 
to the ro[H? in the tube by means of the hand wheel and nut working 
on the large hollow screw referred to. The "grip" is secured to a 
skeleton or traction car called a dummy, as shown in Fig. 2. The 
dummy is coupled to the passenger cars, at the bottom of the incline, 
and uncoupled at the top, and vice versa. At first the connection be- 
tween the dummy and car was made by means of spiral springs, to- 
prevent any jar in starting up, but this was found unnecessary. The 
arrangements made at the bottom of the incline for keeping the rope 
at the proper tension, and taking up the slack, prevent any noticeable 
jar in starting. As before stated, the rope is constantly in motion, 
running between sheaves placed in the tube. The slot of the tube is 
on one side of a vertical line drawn through the centre of the- tube, 
and referring to Fig. 6, it will be seen that the foot of the grip- 
ping attachment projects on one side, giving it an |_ shape, enabling- 
the jaws to pass under and over the rope sheaves in tube. In order 
to stop the car, the jaws of the gripping attachment are opened slightly;. 
when they release the rope, the guide sheaves take it, and the car stops. 
The shank, containing the slid which works in the slot of the 
tube, is one-half of an inch thick and 5J inches wide, there being one- 
eighth play on each side; all the essential parts of the gripping attach- 
ment are made of steel. 



Clay Street Hill Wire Rope Railroad. 




'0- Hrarf 



Section of Hill. 



68 




3 



09 




Fig .3. Application of Power to Rope. 




Fig 4. Skeleton View of Grip 



Fig. 5. Perspective View of Grip 



70 




Fig. 6. 

(There'are other forms of grips, but all containing the same principle 
except so far as taking the rope up from above.) 

The road has a gauge of three feet six inches. An ordinary 
thirty pound X rail is used, which is set flush with the street and pre- 
sents a neat, smooth appearance. The rope runs at the rate of about 
five miles per hour, and the trip is made, including stoppages, in 
twelve minutes, the distance being 5,197 feet. The stretching arrange- 
ment at the lower end has a couterbalance of 3,300 pounds weight on 
a double purchase, which keeps a constant strain on the rope under 
all circumstances. At the termini of the road the car and dummy are 
transfered from one track to the other by means of a turn table, and 
as the available space at these points was very limited, and in view of 
this, some ingenuity had to be employed. When the traction car 
reaches the foot of incline, it is uncoupled from the car and run on to 
the turn-table, the slot in the turn-table allowing the shank of the grip 
to pass freely down. The table is then turned around one-quarter ot 
its circumference, and the track and slots are then brought in the same 
line, The traction car is then run on the other table, which is turned 
back and the traction car is run on the up track. The car is then 
■brought on the turn-table, transferred in the same manner and coupled 









11 


VI 






72 



to the traction car, ready for the ascent. Where turn-tables are used, 
this course is necessary, as there are double tracks; and the traveling' 
wire rope runs down beneath one pair of and up under the other. As 
the gripping attachment passes down under the street through the slot, 
it is , necessary to have a slot in both turn-tables to allow the traction 
car to be turned. 

The original plan was to use switches, so that the dummy would be 
switched off, carrying the shank of the grip through a switch slot 
which connected the two tracks. This latter plan is the one adopted 
by both the Sutter Street and California Street Companies. 

After nearly six years of working, this system has been pronounced 
by the best Engineers, to be the true solution of economical metropoli- 
tan rapid transit, where locomo'ives are not permited to run on the 
surface of the street. 



Size of Gas Pipes. 

Following is the London rul'e for gas pipe sizes: For 200 lights, 
two inch iron tube; 120 lights, one and one-half inch; seventy lights, 
one and one-fourth inch; fifty lights, one inch; twenty-five lights, 
three-fourths inch; twelve lights, one-half inch; six lights, three-eight 
inch; two lights, one-fourth inch. 



Sound. 



Sound has a mean velocity through air ot 1,092J feet per sec- 
ond, and passes through water at a speed of 4,708 feet per second. 



Strength of Animals. 

Two men working at a windlas with the cranks at right angles to 
each other, can raise seventy pounds more easily than one man can 
raise thirty pounds. The mean effective power of a man, unaided by 
machinery, working to best advantage, is raising seventy pounds one 
foot high in one second, for ten hours per day. The strength of a 
horse is equal to that of five men. A horse should be allowed four 
gallons of water per day. One horse power in machinery is estimated at 
33,000 pounds, raised one foot high in one minute. A horse can 
exert this power for but six hours per day, therefore one horse power 
steam, equals four horses. 



T:t 



Mortars and Cements. 

Stone Mortar: eight pans cement, three parts lime, thirty-one parts 
sand. 

Brick Mortar; eight parts cement, three parts lime, twenty-seven 
parts sand. 

Brown Mortar: one part lime, two parts sand, and a small quantity 
of hair. 

Lime and sand, and cement and sand, lessen about one-eighth in 
volume when mixed together. 

In mixing mortar the sand should be sharp and clean, and not 
mixed with the lime until it is slacked; the mortar should be mixed at 
least one week before using. 

Cement for Coating Cisterns.— Mix glycerine and litharge until 
it becomes a thick paste, then apply; hardens quickly. 

Rist Joint for Iron. — One pound sal ammonia, two pounds flour 
of sulphur, eighty pounds iron borings, made to a paste with water. 

Cement for Cisterns or Water Casks. — Melted glue eight parts, 
linseed oil four parts, boiled into a varnish with litharge; hardens in 
forty-eight hours. 



Alloys and Compositions. 

Babbitt Metal, 3.J copper, 89 tin, 7.3 antimony, equals 100 parts. 

Brass, common, S4.3 copper, 5.2 zinc, 10.5 tin. 

Brass, common, 75 copper, 25 zinc. 

Brass, common hard, 79.3 copper, 6.4 zinc, 14.3 tin. 

Brass Wire, 66 copper, 34 zinc. 

Bronze, red, 87 copper, 13 zinc. 

Bronze, yellow, 67.2 copper, 31.2 zinc, 1.6 tin. 

Bronze Medals, 93 copper, 7 tin. 

Muntz Metal, 60 copper, 40 zinc. 

Pewter, 86 tin, 14 antimony. 

Type and Stereotype, 69 lead, 15£ bismuth, 15£ antimony. 

In the manufacture of alloys the most fusible metals should be 
melted first. 

To make Babbitt's Metal : Melt four lbs. Copper; add by degrees, 
twelve lbs. Best Banca Tin, eight lbs. Regulus of Antimony, and twelve 
lbs. more Tin. After four or five lbs. Tin have been added, reduce 



T4 



the heat to a dull red, then adc .he remainder of the metal as above. 
This composition is called hardening (or lining; take one lb. of this 
hardening and melt two lbs. BancaTin with it. 



Melting Points of Alloys. 

Lead 2, tin 3, bismuth 5 312" 

Lead 1, tin 3, bismuth 5 210 

Lead 1, tin 4, bismuth 5 240 

Tin 1, bismuth 1 286 

Tin 2, bismuth 1 336 

Lead 2, tin 3 334 

Tin 8, bismuth 1 392 

Lead 2, tin 1 (solder) 475 

Lead 1, tin 2 (soft solder) 360 

Zinc 1, tin 1 399 

Lead 1, tin 1 368 

Lead 1, tin 1, bismuth 4, cadmium 1 155 

75 parts of lead, 16 7-10ths parts of antimony, 8 3-10ths parts bis- 
muth, forms a metallic alloy that expands in cooling. 

In sandy soil, the greatest force of a pile-driver will not drive a pile 
over 15 feet. 

A horse-power is equivalent to 33,000 lbs. raised* 1 foot high in one 
minute. 



■Wire Fencing. 

The most durable fence is a wire fence. The objection to a plain > 

wire fence is, that the wire is too small to be seen by rattle; by running 
a board along the top this objection is removed. A wire fence made j 

from single wires, is not so good as that made from a two or more 
wires twisted together. 

Wire strand made from seven wires twisted together, make a very 
strong and durable fence, and if galvanized, will last for generations 
and will wear out probably fifty sets of ordinary fence posts. 

We make wire strand of various sizes, and put it up on reels in one- ' 

half mile lengths, so that by putting it in a wagon it will pay off at the 
tail end, as the wagon is driven over the ground to be fenced in.